Σάββατο, 31 Αυγούστου 2013

Science News SciGuru.com

Science News SciGuru.com

Link to Science News from SciGuru.com

Researchers Call for Individualized Criteria for Diagnosing Obesity

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 11:32 AM PDT

With soaring obesity rates in the U.S., the American Medical Association has classified obesity as a disease. This major shift in healthcare policy brings much needed medical attention to obese patients. However, this definition of obesity focuses on a single criterion of Body Mass Index (BMI), which includes a large group of persons with high BMI who are metabolically healthy and not at high risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease or obesity-associated cancers.

read more

Largest ice sheet in the world sensitive to global warming

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 11:06 AM PDT

The East Antarctic Ice Sheet seems to be more vulnerable to the effects of cli-mate change than previously thought. For the first time, an international re-search team from the Universities of Durham and Zurich has studied the long-term development of outlet glaciers using satellite images, revealing that the advance and retreat of the 175 glaciers studied are closely linked to climatic changes.

read more

Increased menthol cigarette use among young people

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 10:56 AM PDT

A new study on mentholated cigarette use in the U.S. finds an increase in menthol cigarette smoking among young adults and concludes that efforts to reduce smoking likely are being thwarted by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands.

read more

Balancing Act: Cell Senescence, Aging Related to Epigenetic Changes

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 09:32 AM PDT

One way cells promote tumor suppression is through a process called senescence, an irreversible arrest of proliferation. Senescence is thought to be associated with normal aging, but is also a protective measure by the body against run-away cell replication. Studying the basic science of senescence gives biomedical researchers a better understanding of the mechanisms behind age-related diseases such as cancer.

read more

ScienceDaily: Living Well News

ScienceDaily: Living Well News


Mosquitoes smell you better at night

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 01:13 PM PDT

The major malaria vector in Africa, the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, is able to smell major human host odorants better at night.

Study reveals the face of sleep deprivation

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 01:13 PM PDT

A new study finds that sleep deprivation affects facial features such as the eyes, mouth and skin, and these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people.

Brain imaging study reveals the wandering mind behind insomnia

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 01:13 PM PDT

A new brain imaging study may help explain why people with insomnia often complain that they struggle to concentrate during the day even when objective evidence of a cognitive problem is lacking.

Exercising one day a week may be enough for older women

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 11:38 AM PDT

A new study reveals that women over age 60 may need to exercise only one day a week to significantly improve strength and endurance.

Overweight and obese women are equally capable of the impulse control that lean women exhibit

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 10:10 AM PDT

Previous studies have shown that overweight and obese people have a harder time delaying gratification, so they are more likely to forego the healthy body later on in favor of eating more calorie-dense foods now. But new research now shows that behavioral interventions that improve delay of gratification can work just as well with overweight and obese women as with lean women.

Music lessons enhance the quality of school life

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:17 AM PDT

A new study examined whether an extended music education had an impact on pupils' experienced satisfaction with the school. Nearly a thousand pupils at ten Finnish schools with extended music classes and comparison classes participated on a survey that measured the quality of school life at Year 3 and Year 6.

Children who go to daycare may benefit from a wider variety of social situations

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:17 AM PDT

Children who go to daycare may benefit from a wider variety of social and communicative situations relative to children who do not go to daycare, a recent study suggests.  The former have a heightened ability to adjust their non-verbal communication to take into account the age of the person they are playing with.

Alcohol breaks brain connections needed to process social cues

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 11:49 AM PDT

Alcohol intoxication reduces communication between two areas of the brain that work together to properly interpret and respond to social signals, according to researchers.

Jet lag: Why the body clock is slow to adjust to time changes

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 09:40 AM PDT

New research in mice reveals why the body is so slow to recover from jet lag. The study identifies a target for the development of drugs that could help us to adjust faster to changes in time zone.

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News


Sea-level rise drives shoreline retreat in Hawaii

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:24 AM PDT

Researchers show that sea-level rise is a primary factor driving historical shoreline changes (that is, beach erosion or accretion) in Hawaii and that historical rates of shoreline change are about two orders of magnitude greater than sea-level rise.

Whales get a tan, too: Pigment in whale skin increases in response to sunshine

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:24 AM PDT

Scientists have revealed the pigment in whale skin increases in response to sunshine, just as we tan. Some species get darker with sun exposure, incurring DNA damage in their skin just like us and they also accumulate damage to the skin as they get older. This provides a better understanding of their protective mechanisms and may offer new avenues to explore for treating human skin cancers.

New understanding of formation of cilia: Cilia provide mobility to cells, and defects are implicated in many disease

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:17 AM PDT

Tiny hair-like structures (cilia) are found on the surface of most cells. Cilia are responsible for the locomotion of cells (e.g. sperm cells), they process external signals and coordinate the correct arrangement of the inner organs during the development of an organism. For proper assembly and function of cilia, they need to be supplied with the appropriate building blocks. Scientists have now identified the mechanism of how Tubulin, the main building block of cilia, is transported within the cilium.

Researchers a step closer to finding cosmic ray origins

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:16 AM PDT

The origin of cosmic rays in the universe has confounded scientists for decades. But new information that may help unravel the longstanding mystery of exactly how and where they are produced.

Jet lag: Why the body clock is slow to adjust to time changes

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 09:40 AM PDT

New research in mice reveals why the body is so slow to recover from jet lag. The study identifies a target for the development of drugs that could help us to adjust faster to changes in time zone.

Ultracold big bang experiment successfully simulates evolution of early universe

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 06:28 AM PDT

Physicists have reproduced a pattern resembling the cosmic microwave background radiation in a laboratory simulation of the Big Bang, using ultracold cesium atoms in a vacuum chamber.

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News


Mosquitoes smell you better at night

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 01:13 PM PDT

The major malaria vector in Africa, the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, is able to smell major human host odorants better at night.

Study reveals the face of sleep deprivation

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 01:13 PM PDT

A new study finds that sleep deprivation affects facial features such as the eyes, mouth and skin, and these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people.

Brain imaging study reveals the wandering mind behind insomnia

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 01:13 PM PDT

A new brain imaging study may help explain why people with insomnia often complain that they struggle to concentrate during the day even when objective evidence of a cognitive problem is lacking.

New ocean forecast could help predict fish habitat six months in advance

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 11:39 AM PDT

The first seasonal forecast of conditions that matter for fisheries could help to better manage stocks.

Drug design success propels efforts to fight HIV with a combination of 2 FDA-approved drugs

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 11:39 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a new delivery system for a combination of two FDA approved drugs that may serve as an effective treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus. The discovery, which allows for a combination of decitabine and gemcitabine to be delivered in pill form, marks a major step forward in patient feasibility for the drugs, which previously had been available solely via injection or intravenous therapy.

Red spruce reviving in New England, but why?

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 11:39 AM PDT

In the 1970s, red spruce was the forest equivalent of a canary in the coal mine, signaling that acid rain was damaging forests and that some species, especially red spruce, were particularly sensitive to this human induced damage. Now, scientists are finding that red spruce are growing at levels almost two times the average for the last 100 years, a growth rate never before achieved by the trees examined.

Exercising one day a week may be enough for older women

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 11:38 AM PDT

A new study reveals that women over age 60 may need to exercise only one day a week to significantly improve strength and endurance.

New insights on wildfire smoke could improve climate change models

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 10:12 AM PDT

By viewing particles captured during the 2011 Las Conchas fire in New Mexico under a field emission scanning electron microscope, scientists found that there's more to tar balls and soot than meets the naked eye.

How vegetation competes for rainfall in dry regions

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 10:11 AM PDT

Vegetation in semi-arid environments (or regions with low rainfall) self-organizes into patterns or "bands." Banded vegetation is common where there is low rainfall. Scientists have used a mathematical model to determine the levels of precipitation within which such pattern formation occurs.

Individualized criteria for diagnosing obesity urged

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 10:11 AM PDT

Researchers have discussed the importance of eliminating healthy obese persons from unnecessary pharmaceutical treatments of the disease.

Despite NFL settlement, still no proof football causes Alzheimer's or CTE

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 10:10 AM PDT

Despite the NFL's $765 million settlement with retired players, there still is no credible scientific evidence that playing football causes Alzheimer's disease or other neurological disorders, according to a neuropsychologist.

Overweight and obese women are equally capable of the impulse control that lean women exhibit

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 10:10 AM PDT

Previous studies have shown that overweight and obese people have a harder time delaying gratification, so they are more likely to forego the healthy body later on in favor of eating more calorie-dense foods now. But new research now shows that behavioral interventions that improve delay of gratification can work just as well with overweight and obese women as with lean women.

Increased use menthol cigarette found among young people

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 10:10 AM PDT

A new study on mentholated cigarette use in the U.S. finds an increase in menthol cigarette smoking among young adults and concludes that efforts to reduce smoking likely are being thwarted by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands.

Membranes contain beautiful patterns, but their function is a mystery

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 07:43 AM PDT

Biological cells are surrounded by a membrane, and here some of the most important processes for sustaining life take place. There can also be something very beautiful happening in membranes, researchers have discovered: Membranes can contain beautiful, mysterious patterns.

Alaska tundra shows surprising resilience after unprecedented fire

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 07:42 AM PDT

Despite the size and severity of the massive 2007 Anaktuvuk River fire on Alaska's North Slope, much of the arctic vegetation has recovered and the tundra is likely to return to its pre-fire condition according to scientists.

Balancing act: Cell senescence, aging related to epigenetic changes

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 07:41 AM PDT

Cell senescence, an irreversible arrest of proliferation, is thought to be associated with normal aging and is protective against cancer. Researchers found that senescent cells undergo changes in their chromatin, similar to changes in cells that are prematurely aging. When the nuclear protein lamin B1 is deleted in senescent cells, large-scale changes in gene expression occurred. This loss of lamin B1 may cause changes in chromatin architecture and add to premature cell aging.

NASA Mars rover views eclipse of the sun by Phobos

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:26 AM PDT

Images taken with a telephoto-lens camera on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity catch the larger of Mars' two moons, Phobos, passing directly in front of the sun -- the sharpest images of a solar eclipse ever taken at Mars.

Dueling infections: Parasitic worms limit the effects of giardia, and vice versa

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:24 AM PDT

If the idea of hookworms makes you shudder, consider this: Those pesky intestinal parasites may actually help your body ward off other infections, and perhaps even prevent autoimmune and other diseases.

Sea-level rise drives shoreline retreat in Hawaii

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:24 AM PDT

Researchers show that sea-level rise is a primary factor driving historical shoreline changes (that is, beach erosion or accretion) in Hawaii and that historical rates of shoreline change are about two orders of magnitude greater than sea-level rise.

Spray-on solar cells? New nanoparticles make solar cells cheaper to manufacture

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:24 AM PDT

Researchers have found that abundant materials in the Earth's crust can be used to make inexpensive and easily manufactured nanoparticle-based solar cells.

New research gives answers on the relationship between chronic illness and food insecurity

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:24 AM PDT

Research findings provide direct evidence that people with chronic diseases are more likely to be food insecure.

Whales get a tan, too: Pigment in whale skin increases in response to sunshine

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:24 AM PDT

Scientists have revealed the pigment in whale skin increases in response to sunshine, just as we tan. Some species get darker with sun exposure, incurring DNA damage in their skin just like us and they also accumulate damage to the skin as they get older. This provides a better understanding of their protective mechanisms and may offer new avenues to explore for treating human skin cancers.

Into the moving, crushing, shifting ice

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:23 AM PDT

Two days on an ice floe may not seem like paradise, but for a team of scientists on the multinational 2013 Oden Arctic Technology Research Cruise, it was the achievement of an important research goal.

Computer program predicts functions of bacterial gene regulators

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:23 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a computer program to predict the functions of bacterial gene regulators. This online software which is called CopraRNA could save researchers a lot of wet lab work as it precisely predicts which bacterial genes are controlled by certain regulators.

Liver cancer due to chronic inflammation: Tumor growth follows programmed cell death (apoptosis)

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:18 AM PDT

Liver cancer (Hepatocellular Carcinoma, HCC) usually arises as the result of a chronic, inflammatory liver disease. The most common causes here are excessive alcohol consumption as well as a high-fat diet and also chronic infection with the hepatitis viruses B and C. In the course of the inflammatory process, the liver cells (hepatocytes) die more frequently due to programmed cell death. The result is increased cell growth, also referred to as compensatory proliferation, which can lead to tumor development.

Botany and health: Very small chemical changes to dietary flavonoids cause very large effects on human immune system

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:18 AM PDT

Very small chemical changes to dietary flavonoids cause very large effects when the plant natural products are tested for their impact on the human immune system. Plants are capable of making tens of thousands of different small molecules - an average leaf for example, produces around 20,000. Many of these are found in a typical diet and some are already known to have medicinal properties with effects on health, diseases and general well-being. Now plant biologists and immunologists have examined a very closely related family of these small molecules (flavonoids) to establish how tiny changes to their chemical structures affect their bio-activity.

Music lessons enhance the quality of school life

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:17 AM PDT

A new study examined whether an extended music education had an impact on pupils' experienced satisfaction with the school. Nearly a thousand pupils at ten Finnish schools with extended music classes and comparison classes participated on a survey that measured the quality of school life at Year 3 and Year 6.

New understanding of formation of cilia: Cilia provide mobility to cells, and defects are implicated in many disease

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:17 AM PDT

Tiny hair-like structures (cilia) are found on the surface of most cells. Cilia are responsible for the locomotion of cells (e.g. sperm cells), they process external signals and coordinate the correct arrangement of the inner organs during the development of an organism. For proper assembly and function of cilia, they need to be supplied with the appropriate building blocks. Scientists have now identified the mechanism of how Tubulin, the main building block of cilia, is transported within the cilium.

The more the merrier: Promiscuity in mice is a matter of free choice

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:17 AM PDT

We know from earlier studies that mice can derive genetic benefits when females mate with multiple males, but until recently, the conditions under which females will voluntarily mate with multiple males were not clear. New results provide evidence for the infanticide avoidance explanation. Males that have a chance of reproducing with a female are unlikely to kill her young.

A novel locus identified for glaucoma in dandie dinmont terrier dog breed

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:17 AM PDT

Scientists have identified a novel locus for glaucoma in Dandie Dinmont Terrier. The locus on canine chromosome 8 includes a 9.5 Mb region that is associated with glaucoma. The canine locus shares synteny to human chromosome 14, which has been previously associated with different types of human glaucomas. However, the actual glaucoma causing mutation in Dandies remains unknown.

Children who go to daycare may benefit from a wider variety of social situations

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:17 AM PDT

Children who go to daycare may benefit from a wider variety of social and communicative situations relative to children who do not go to daycare, a recent study suggests.  The former have a heightened ability to adjust their non-verbal communication to take into account the age of the person they are playing with.

New model to study schizophrenia and other neurological conditions

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:16 AM PDT

Schizophrenia is one of the most devastating neurological conditions, with only 30 percent of sufferers ever experiencing full recovery. While current medications can control most psychotic symptoms, their side effects can leave individuals so severely impaired that the disease ranks among the top ten causes of disability in developed countries.

Sideline teleconcussion robot to be tested at football games

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:16 AM PDT

Scientists are testing the feasibility of using a telemedicine robot to assess athletes with suspected concussions during football games as part of a research study. With sophisticated robotic technology, use of a specialized remote controlled camera system allows patients to be "seen" by the neurology specialist, miles away, in real time. During the study, the robot equipped with a specialized camera system, remotely operated by a neurologist who has the ability to assess a player for symptoms and signs of a concussion and to consult with sideline medical personnel.

Promising new angle for drugs to prevent stroke and heart attack

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:16 AM PDT

A new study — the first to apply a new screening technique to human platelets — netted a potential drug target for preventing dangerous blood clots in high-risk people.

Researchers a step closer to finding cosmic ray origins

Posted: 30 Aug 2013 06:16 AM PDT

The origin of cosmic rays in the universe has confounded scientists for decades. But new information that may help unravel the longstanding mystery of exactly how and where they are produced.

Collagen clue reveals new drug target for untreatable form of lung cancer

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 06:47 PM PDT

Collagen, the stuff of ligaments and skin, and the most abundant protein in the human body, has an extraordinary role in triggering chemical signals that help protect the body from cancer, a new study reveals. Scientists have uncovered a series of chemical signals sent out by collagen that appear to protect against cancer's growth.

Stroke systems of care essential to reducing deaths, disabilities

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 06:43 PM PDT

Scientists have identified several key elements needed for systems of care to effectively reduce stroke-related deaths and disability.

Shutting off neurons helps bullied mice overcome symptoms of depression

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 06:43 PM PDT

A new drug target to treat depression and other mood disorders may lie in a group of GABA neurons shown to contribute to symptoms like social withdrawal and increased anxiety, researchers report.

Simple urine test may help identify individuals with diabetes at risk for cognitive decline

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 06:42 PM PDT

Diabetics with persistent protein in the urine over four to five years had greater declines in cognitive function than diabetics without protein in the urine. The decline was subtle; however, over 10 to 15 years it could translate into noticeable impairment.

Genomic study reveals why children in remission from rheumatoid arthritis often experience recurrences

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 06:42 PM PDT

A new study published today in Arthritis Research & Therapy provides the first genomic characterization of remission in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Time for tech transfer law to change? Doctor looks at history of Bayh-Dole, and says yes

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 11:52 AM PDT

The law that has helped medical discoveries make the leap from university labs to the marketplace for more than 30 years needs revising, in part to ensure the American people benefit from science their tax dollars have paid for, says a physician and medical historian.

New report: Call for President Obama urged to 'remove public veil of ignorance' around state of US health

Posted: 29 Aug 2013 11:51 AM PDT

In a call to action on the sorry comparative state of US health, researchers are urging President Obama to "remove the public veil of ignorance" and confront a pressing question: Why is America at the bottom? The report appeals to the President to create a National Commission on the Health of Americans. The researchers underscore the importance for the country to begin reversing the decline in the comparative status of US health.