Τρίτη, 31 Ιουλίου 2012

Science News SciGuru.com

Science News SciGuru.com

Link to Science News from SciGuru.com

Men with prostate cancer more likely to die from other causes

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 12:16 PM PDT

Men diagnosed with prostate cancer are less likely to die from the disease than from largely preventable conditions such as heart disease, according to a new study from Harvard School of Public Health. It is the largest study to date that looks at causes of death among men with prostate cancer, and suggests that encouraging healthy lifestyle changes should play an important role in prostate cancer management.

read more

When rules change, brain falters

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 12:06 PM PDT

For the human brain, learning a new task when rules change can be a surprisingly difficult process marred by repeated mistakes, according to a new study by Michigan State University psychology researchers.

Imagine traveling to Ireland and suddenly having to drive on the left side of the road. The brain, trained for right-side driving, becomes overburdened trying to suppress the old rules while simultaneously focusing on the new rules, said Hans Schroder, primary researcher on the study.

read more

Giant ice avalanches on Iapetus provide clue to extreme slippage elsewhere in the solar system

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 11:13 AM PDT

“We see landslides everywhere in the solar system,” says Kelsi Singer, graduate student in earth and planetary sciences in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, “but Saturn’s icy moon Iapetus has more giant landslides than any body other than Mars.”

read more

Archeologists unearth extraordinary human sculpture in Turkey

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 08:47 AM PDT

A beautiful and colossal human sculpture is one of the latest cultural treasures unearthed by an international team at the Tayinat Archaeological Project (TAP) excavation site in southeastern Turkey. A large semi-circular column base, ornately decorated on one side, was also discovered. Both pieces are from a monumental gate complex that provided access to the upper citadel of Kunulua, capital of the Neo-Hittite Kingdom of Patina (ca. 1000-738 BC).

read more

“Emotion Detectives” Uncover New Ways to Address Youth Anxiety and Depression

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 08:38 AM PDT

Emotional problems in childhood are common. Approximately 8 to 22 percent of children suffer from anxiety, often combined with other conditions such as depression. However, most existing therapies are not designed to treat coexisting psychological problems and are therefore not very successful in helping children with complex emotional issues.

read more

Newsletter for Tuesday 31 July

 

Newsletter - July 31 - Today in Science History  


TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY
 NEWSLETTER - JULY 31
Before you look at today's web page, see if you can answer some of these questions about the events that happened on July 31. Some of the names are very familiar. Others will likely stump you. Tickle your curiosity with these questions, then check your answers on today's web page.
Quotations for Today
"" - 
QUIZ
Births
Theobald Smith, born 31 Jul 1859, was an American microbiologist and pathologist who discovered the causes of several infectious and parasitic diseases. He is often considered the greatest American bacteriologist. In 1892 he linked Texas cattle fever with a protozoan parasite spread by blood-sucking arthropods. At the time, many scientists were skeptical that disease would be spread by bloodsucking insects. However, the precedent was established for other scientists to make links in cases of other diseases spread by insects. 
Which insect did Smith identify in the spread of Texas Cattle Fever?
Friedrich Wöhler, born 31 Jul 1800, was a German chemist who co-discovered a new element. Having studied first medicine, then mineralogy, it was chemistry that became his primary interest. He found a method in 1827 for the production of metallic aluminum in the form of a grey powder by heating aluminum chloride with  potassium. In 1828, he succeeded in the isolation of beryllium as a black-grey powder as well as of yttrium and (1856) crystalline silicon. His is most well-known for the synthesis of urea from ammonium cyanate (1828), which created an organic compound from an inorganic one, showing there was no absolute distinction between the two areas of chemical study. In 1862, he produced acetylene from calcium carbide. 
Not named above, can you identify the new element he co-discovered?
Deaths
Francis Edgar Stanley (1849-1918) was an American inventor, who with his twin brother Freeman, were famous manufacturers of automobiles. Francis previously had invented a photographic dry-plate process (1883), and as the Stanley Dry Plate Company the brothers had engaged in the manufacturing of the plates. They sold the company to Eastman Kodak in 1905, as their interest had turned to automobiles. At racing events, they often competed successfully against gasoline powered cars. 
What powered Stanley cars?
Events
On 31 July 1790, the first U.S. patent was granted to Samuel Hopkins of Vermont for a process for making potash and pearl ashes. Potash was used as an ingredient in soap and fertilizer. The patent was granted for a term of 14 years and signed by George Washington.
What  patent number was on this patent?
Answers
When you have your answers ready to all the questions above, you'll find all the information to check them, and more, on the July 31 web page of Today in Science History.

Or, try this link first for just the brief answers.
 


Fast answers for the previous newsletter for July 30: Iconoscope, forerunner of the TV camera; Henry Ford; seismograph; William and John Kellogg; Winton Motor Car Company.
 
Feedback
If you enjoy this newsletter, the website, or wish to offer encouragement or ideas, please write.
 

 
 
--
If you do not want to receive any more newsletters,  this link

To update your preferences and to unsubscribe visit this link
 

! !

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


Blocking the effects of amyloid b in Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:41 PM PDT

During Alzheimer's disease, 'plaques' of amyloid beta (Ab) and tau protein 'tangles' develop in the brain, leading to the death of brain cells and disruption of chemical signaling between neurons. This leads to loss of memory, mood changes, and difficulties with reasoning. New research has found that up-regulating the gene Hes1 largely counteracted the effects of Ab on neurons, including preventing cell death, and on GABAergic signaling.

Dying of cold: Hypothermia in trauma victims

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:41 PM PDT

Hypothermia in trauma victims is a serious complication and is associated with an increased risk of dying. A new study has found that the key risk factor was severity of injury. However, environmental conditions and medical care, such as the temperature of the ambulance or temperature of any fluids administered intravenously, also increased risk.

A closer look at the consuming gaze

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 05:46 PM PDT

But how does where a product is placed on the storeroom shelf influence which option a consumer will ultimately choose? It turns out that the shopper's eye has a very central focus.

Offshore use of vertical-axis wind turbines gets closer look

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 05:46 PM PDT

Wind energy researchers are re-evaluating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) to help solve some of the problems of generating energy from offshore breezes.

Mechanism of lung cancer-associated mutations suggests new therapeutic approaches

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 02:03 PM PDT

Researchers have identified how one of the genes most commonly mutated in lung cancer may promote such tumors. The investigators found that the protein encoded by this gene, called EPHA3, normally inhibits tumor formation, and that loss or mutation of the gene -- as often happens in lung cancer -- diminishes this tumor-suppressive effect, potentially sparking the formation of lung cancer.

Parents can increase children's activity by increasing their own

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 02:03 PM PDT

New research shows that, when parents increase their daily activity, their children increase theirs as well.

Brains are different in people with highly superior autobiographical memory

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 02:03 PM PDT

Scientists have discovered intriguing differences in the brains and mental processes of an extraordinary group of people who can effortlessly recall every moment of their lives since about age 10.

New coating evicts biofilms for good

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 02:02 PM PDT

Biofilms may no longer have any solid ground upon which to stand. Scientists have developed a slick way to prevent the troublesome bacterial communities from ever forming on a surface. Biofilms stick to just about everything, from copper pipes to steel ship hulls to glass catheters. The slimy coatings are more than just a nuisance, resulting in decreased energy efficiency, contamination of water and food supplies, and -- especially in medical settings -- persistent infections. Even cavities in teeth are the unwelcome result of bacterial colonies.

Stem cells repair hearts early in life, but not in adults

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 02:01 PM PDT

Stem cells can actually replace dead heart tissue after a heart attack very early in life — but those same cells lose that regenerative ability in adults, according to new research. The study, using mice as subjects, found that undifferentiated precursor cells grow new heart cells in a two-day-old mouse, but not in adult mice, settling a decades-old controversy about whether stem cells can play a role in the recovery of the adult mammalian heart following infarction — where heart tissue dies due to artery blockage.

Stem cell therapy could offer new hope for defects and injuries to head, mouth

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 02:01 PM PDT

In the first human study of its kind, researchers found that using stem cells to re-grow craniofacial tissues—mainly bone—proved quicker, more effective and less invasive than traditional bone regeneration treatments.

Humpback whales staying in Antarctic bays later into autumn

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 12:50 PM PDT

Large numbers of humpback whales are remaining in bays along the Western Antarctic Peninsula to feast on krill late into the austral autumn, long after scientists thought their annual migrations to distant breeding grounds would begin, according to a new study.

One in five streams damaged by mine pollution in southern West Virginia

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 12:50 PM PDT

Water pollution from surface coal mining has degraded more than 22 percent of streams and rivers in southern West Virginia to the point they may now qualify as impaired under state criteria, according to a new study.

Modern culture 44,000 years ago: Human behavior, as we know it, emerged earlier than previously thought

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 12:50 PM PDT

An international team of researchers, including scientists from Wits University, have substantially increased the age at which we can trace the emergence of modern culture, all thanks to the San people of Africa.

Later Stone Age got earlier start in South Africa than thought

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 12:50 PM PDT

The Later Stone Age emerged in South Africa more than 20,000 years earlier than previously believed -- about the same time humans were migrating from Africa to the European continent, says a new study.

Tiny airborne pollutants lead double life

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 12:50 PM PDT

Researchers have provided visual evidence that atmospheric particles separate into distinct chemical compositions during their life cycle. Observations could have important implications for modeling global climate change and predicting air quality conditions.

New genetic target found for diuretic therapy

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 12:50 PM PDT

Researchers have identified a new genetic target for diuretic therapy in patients with fluid overload -- like those with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis or kidney failure.

Grin and bear it: Smiling facilitates stress recovery

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 12:01 PM PDT

Just grin and bear it! At some point, we have all probably heard or thought something like this when facing a tough situation. But is there any truth to this piece of advice? Feeling good usually makes us smile, but does it work the other way around? Researchers have now examined how different types of smiling, and the awareness of smiling, affects our ability to recover from episodes of stress.

250 years of global warming: Berkeley Earth releases new analysis

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 11:25 AM PDT

According to a new Berkeley Earth study released July 29, the average temperature of Earth's land has risen by 1.5 °C over the past 250 years. The good match between the new temperature record and historical carbon dioxide records suggests that the most straightforward explanation for this warming is human greenhouse gas emissions.

Liver cancer cells stop making glucose as they become cancerous

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 11:16 AM PDT

Research has shown that as liver cancer develops, tumor cells lose the ability to produce and release glucose into the bloodstream. The change might aid cancer-cell growth and proliferation by helping to maintain high levels of glycolysis under conditions of drastically reduced mitochondrial respiration, also known as the Warburg effect. The findings suggest that reversing this process might offer a new treatment for the most common form of liver cancer.

Eating habits of giant Jurassic age dinosaur discovered

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 11:16 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered the eating habits of Diplodocus using a three-dimensional model of the dinosaur's skull.

Infection warning system in cells contains targets for antiviral and vaccine strategies

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 11:16 AM PDT

Scientists seeking to help the body better defend itself against hepatitis C, West Nile, and other serious virus infections are studying pattern recognition molecules inside living cells, called RIG-I-like receptors. When these receptors detect virus invasions, they alert the immune system to fight infection. Scientists have discovered ways certain proteins interact with RIG-I receptors to more efficiently emit signals in response to viral threats and to recruit killer T-cells. Therapeutics might be designed to mimic these actions.

In Massachusetts, 'individual mandate' led to decreased hospital productivity

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 10:44 AM PDT

As the "individual mandate" of the Affordable Care Act moves forward, debate and speculation continue as to whether universal health insurance coverage will lead to significant cost savings for hospitals. The assumption is that providing appropriate primary care will improve the overall health of the population, resulting in less need for hospital services and less severe illness among hospitalized patients. Findings from a recent study challenge that assumption.

Sunburn a common result of indoor tanning by college-aged females

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 10:44 AM PDT

Controversy remains over the risks involved with indoor tanning, especially in children and young adults. Since sunburn serves as a marker for excessive and skin-cell damaging UV exposure -- which can eventually lead to the development of skin cancer -- investigators took a closer look at a college-aged sample of females and their indoor tanning habits. What they found was that sunburn was a frequently reported experience by these young women when they engaged in this activity.

When rules change, brain falters

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 09:42 AM PDT

For the human brain, learning a new task when rules change can be a surprisingly difficult process marred by repeated mistakes, according to a new study.

Interactive proofs: Ten-year-old problem in theoretical computer science falls

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 09:42 AM PDT

Interactive proofs -- mathematical games that underlie much modern cryptography -- work even if players try to use quantum information to cheat. Computer scientists show there are multiprover interactive proofs that hold up against entangled respondents.

Emotion detectives uncover new ways to fight-off youth anxiety and depression

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 09:42 AM PDT

Emotional problems in childhood are common. Approximately 8 to 22 percent of children suffer from anxiety, often combined with other conditions such as depression. However, most existing therapies are not designed to treat coexisting psychological problems and are therefore not very successful in helping children with complex emotional issues.

Pollution can make citizens, both rich and poor, go green

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 08:21 AM PDT

Nothing inspires environmentalism quite like a smog-filled sky or a contaminated river, according to a new study that also indicates that environmentalism isn't just for the prosperous.

Long-distance distress signal from periphery of injured nerve cells begins with locally made protein

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 08:21 AM PDT

New research is one of the strongest indicators yet of molecular signaling from end to end in peripheral nerve cells. The new discoveries may help scientists better understand nerve cells' distress signals and nerve cell repair, so they can eventually control and enhance the process to speed up recovery from nerve injuries.

Archeologists unearth extraordinary human sculpture in Turkey

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 08:21 AM PDT

A beautiful and colossal human sculpture is one of the latest cultural treasures unearthed by an international team at the Tayinat Archaeological Project excavation site in southeastern Turkey.

Scientists pinpoint genetic changes that spell cancer

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 08:20 AM PDT

By studying fruit flies, scientists have successfully devised a fast and cost-saving way to uncover genetic changes that have a higher potential to cause cancer. With this new approach, researchers will now be able to rapidly distinguish the range of genetic changes that are causally linked to cancer (i.e. "driver" mutations) versus those with limited impact on cancer progression. This study could help advance the development of personalized medicine in cancer care and treatment.

Computer scientists present smile database

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 08:17 AM PDT

What exactly happens to your face when you smile spontaneously, and how does that affect how old you look? Computer scientists recorded the smiles of hundreds of people, thus creating the most comprehensive smile database ever. The research also shows that you look younger when you smile, but only if you are over forty. If you are under forty, you should look neutral if you want to come across younger.

Rapid assessment of plant drought tolerance possible with new method

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:53 AM PDT

Life scientists have discovered a new method to quickly assess plants' drought tolerance that works for many diverse species growing around the world.

What would happen without PSA testing?

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:49 AM PDT

A new analysis has found that doing away with PSA (prostate specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer would likely cause three times as many men to develop advanced disease that has spread to other parts of the body before being diagnosed. The study suggests that PSA testing and early detection may prevent approximately 17,000 men each year from having such advanced prostate cancer at diagnosis.

Introduction of Asian ladybugs into Europe serious mistake, experts say

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:49 AM PDT

In retrospect, introducing the Asian ladybird (ladybug) into Europe was a serious mistake. The insect was introduced some twenty years ago in a conscious attempt to combat aphids. But new research into the invasion of this foreign insect has shown that the disadvantages far outweigh this single advantage. The Asian species is displacing the native European ladybird and has become a pest that can contaminate homes and spoil the taste of wine.

Mindreading hormone? A better judge of character with nasal spray?

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:49 AM PDT

Ingesting the hormone oxytocin via nasal spray improves the ability to read people's facial expressions. These findings hold great promise for treatment of mental health disorders and drug addiction. In other contexts, oxytocin is already well-known as the "bliss hormone". The hormone is secreted upon stimulation by touch and is known to result in a feeling of calm and physical relaxation. It is also used to induce labor in childbirth and as an aid for women experiencing difficulties in breastfeeding.

The atomic nucleus: Fissile liquid or molecule of life?

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:49 AM PDT

A new view of the nucleus that unifies its liquid and molecule-like aspects has now been put forward.  By making an analogy with neutron stars, the researchers have for the first time demonstrated one of the necessary conditions for the formation of molecule-like behavior within the atomic nucleus. Such molecule-like behavior makes it possible to understand the synthesis of elements that are key to the appearance of life.

Brain development delayed in ADHD, study shows

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:48 AM PDT

Is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) due to a delay in brain development or the result of complete deviation from typical development? Psychologists found that the development of the cortical surface is delayed in frontal brain regions in children with ADHD.

Archaeologists discover the tomb of a Mayan prince in Mexico

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:48 AM PDT

Researchers have been digging for four years together with Mexican antiquity authorities from the Mayan city of Uxul in Campeche, Mexico. The aim of the excavation project is to research the process of centralization and collapse of hegemonic state structures in the Mayan Lowlands using the example of the mid-sized archeological site (Uxul) and its ties to the supraregional center (Calakmul). Archaeologists have now discovered the tomb of a Mayan prince.

A giant step in a miniature world: Electrical charge of nano particles measured

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:48 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a new method that measures not only the size of the particles but also their electrostatic charge. Up until now it has not been possible to determine the charge of the particles directly. This unique method, which is the first of its kind in the world, is just as important for the manufacture of drugs as in basic research.

Cooling, not population loss, led to fewer fires after 1500 in New World

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:41 AM PDT

After Columbus' voyage, burning of New World forests and fields diminished significantly – a phenomenon some have attributed to decimation of native populations. But a new study suggests global cooling resulted in fewer fires because both preceded Columbus in many regions worldwide.

Cloud seeds and ozone holes

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:41 AM PDT

New findings on the growth of ice clusters in polar stratospheric clouds could help clarify the process of ozone depletion in the atmosphere.

Lotus leaf inspires fog-free finish for transparent surfaces

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:41 AM PDT

Chinese scientists use silica nanoparticles resembling raspberries to create a water-repellent, fog-free, self-cleaning finish for glass and other transparent surfaces.

Mathematicians develop new method for describing extremely complicated shapes

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:41 AM PDT

Building a bridge between topology and fractals may lead to a new way of describing tiny defects in metal or the froth of a breaking wave.

Psychological abuse puts children at risk

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:41 AM PDT

Psychological abuse may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect, experts say in position statement on psychological maltreatment.

How to avoid traps in plastic electronics

Posted: 30 Jul 2012 06:41 AM PDT

Plastic electronics hold the promise of cheap, mass-produced devices. But plastic semiconductors have an important flaw: the electronic current is influenced by "charge traps" in the material. New research reveals a common mechanism underlying these traps and provides a theoretical framework to design trap-free plastic electronics.