Δευτέρα, 31 Μαρτίου 2014

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Genetic study supports link between carbohydrate digestion and obesity

Posted: 31 Mar 2014 07:12 AM PDT

New research indicates that obesity in the general population may be genetically linked to how our bodies digest carbohydrates. Published in the journal Nature Genetics, the study investigated the relationship between body weight and a gene called AMY1, which is responsible for an enzyme present in our saliva known as salivary amylase. This enzyme is the first to be encountered by food when it enters the mouth, and it begins the process of starch digestion that then continues in the gut.

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Public smoking bans have positive effects on children’s health

Posted: 31 Mar 2014 07:04 AM PDT

The last decade has seen public smoking bans enacted in several European countries and North American states with demonstrated benefits for adult health. However, a new meta-analysis study suggests that such bans also have benefits for child health. Both premature births and hospital admissions for asthma have dropped following the introduction of these bans. The findings, from researchers in the University of Edinburgh, Maastricht University, Hasselt University, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital were published on March 28th in The Lancet.

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'Cosmic barometer' could reveal violent events in universe's past

Posted: 31 Mar 2014 06:11 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a way of reading the universe's 'cosmic barometer' to learn more about ancient violent events in space. Exploding stars, random impacts involving comets and meteorites, and even near misses between two bodies can create regions of great heat and high pressure.

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ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Why we miss subtle visual changes, and why it keeps us sane

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:15 PM PDT

Ever notice how Harry Potter's T-shirt abruptly changes from a crewneck to a henley shirt in 'The Order of the Phoenix,' or how in 'Pretty Woman,' Julia Roberts' croissant inexplicably morphs into a pancake? Don't worry if you missed those continuity bloopers. Vision scientists have discovered an upside to the brain mechanism that can blind us to subtle changes in movies and in the real world.

Northern and southern hemisphere climates follow the beat of different drummers

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:13 PM PDT

Over the last 1000 years, temperature differences between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres were larger than previously thought. Using new data from the Southern Hemisphere, researchers have shown that climate model simulations overestimate the links between the climate variations across the Earth with implications for regional predictions.

Carbohydrate digestion and obesity strongly linked

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:13 PM PDT

New research indicates that obesity in the general population may be genetically linked to how our bodies digest carbohydrates. People usually have two copies of the gene AMY1, but in some regions of our DNA there can be variability in the number of copies a person carries, which is known as copy number variation. The number of copies of AMY1 can be highly variable between people, and it is believed that higher numbers of copies of the salivary amylase gene have evolved in response to a shift towards diets containing more starch since prehistoric times.

Earth's dynamic interior: Multiple compositional components of Earth's deep mantle carried up to surface

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:12 PM PDT

Seeking to better understand the composition of the lowermost part of Earth's mantle, located nearly 2,900 kilometers (1,800 miles) below the surface, researchers have developed new simulations that depict the dynamics of deep Earth. These could be used to explain the complex geochemistry of lava from hotspots such as Hawaii.

Heat‐conducting polymer cools hot electronic devices at 200 degrees C

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:12 PM PDT

By harnessing an electropolymerization process to produce aligned arrays of polymer nanofibers, researchers have developed a thermal interface material able to conduct heat 20 times better than the original polymer. The material can operate at up to 200 degrees Celsius.

Celiac disease linked to increased risk of coronary artery disease

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

People with celiac disease may have a near two-fold increased risk of coronary artery disease compared with the general population, according to research. The study is the first to look at the association between celiac disease and coronary artery disease and adds to the evolving understanding of how systemic inflammation and autoimmune processes might influence cardiovascular disease development. Data also showed a slightly higher risk of stroke among people with celiac disease compared to controls.

Obesity prevention programs can lower kids' blood pressure, even if they don't reduce body fat

Posted: 28 Mar 2014 02:50 PM PDT

A systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of the effect of child obesity intervention programs on blood pressure has found that whether such programs prevented obesity or not, many of them reduced blood pressure in children. Even modest elevations in the BP of adolescents, according to recent research, can pose cardiovascular problems later in life.

ScienceDaily: Living Well News

ScienceDaily: Living Well News


Carbohydrate digestion and obesity strongly linked

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:13 PM PDT

New research indicates that obesity in the general population may be genetically linked to how our bodies digest carbohydrates. People usually have two copies of the gene AMY1, but in some regions of our DNA there can be variability in the number of copies a person carries, which is known as copy number variation. The number of copies of AMY1 can be highly variable between people, and it is believed that higher numbers of copies of the salivary amylase gene have evolved in response to a shift towards diets containing more starch since prehistoric times.

Too many diet drinks may spell heart trouble for older women

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

It appears healthy postmenopausal women who drink two or more diet drinks a day may be more likely to have a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular problems, according to research. In fact, compared to women who never or only rarely consume diet drinks, those who consumed two or more a day were 30 percent more likely to suffer a cardiovascular event and 50 percent more likely to die from related disease.

Obesity prevention programs can lower kids' blood pressure, even if they don't reduce body fat

Posted: 28 Mar 2014 02:50 PM PDT

A systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of the effect of child obesity intervention programs on blood pressure has found that whether such programs prevented obesity or not, many of them reduced blood pressure in children. Even modest elevations in the BP of adolescents, according to recent research, can pose cardiovascular problems later in life.

Marathon training could help the heart

Posted: 27 Mar 2014 07:08 AM PDT

Marathon training is associated with improved risk factors related to cardiovascular disease among middle-aged recreational male runners, suggesting that race preparation may be an effective strategy for reducing heart disease risk, according to research.

Mediterranean diet may lower risk of diabetes

Posted: 27 Mar 2014 07:08 AM PDT

Adoption of a Mediterranean diet is linked to a lower risk of diabetes, especially among people at high risk for cardiovascular disease, according to research. The main researcher said he believes the Mediterranean diet, in particular, lowers the risk of diabetes by helping to guard against obesity.

Air pollution from traffic increases odds of hospital readmission for asthma

Posted: 27 Mar 2014 07:07 AM PDT

Higher exposure to traffic-related air pollution dramatically increases the odds of readmission to the hospital for asthma -- but only for white children, according to a new study. The study shows that white children exposed to high levels of TRAP are three times more likely to be readmitted for asthma than white children with low TRAP exposure. Levels of TRAP exposure were not associated with increased risk of readmission of black children, despite their having overall higher rates of asthma readmission than white children.

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News


Ancient African cattle first domesticated in Middle East, study reveals

Posted: 28 Mar 2014 09:10 AM PDT

The genetic history of 134 cattle breeds from around the world has been completed by a group of researchers. In the process of completing this history, they found that ancient domesticated African cattle originated in the 'Fertile Crescent,' a region that covered modern day Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Israel.

Revolutionary solar cells double as lasers

Posted: 28 Mar 2014 05:55 AM PDT

Latest research finds that the trailblazing 'perovskite' material used in solar cells can double up as a laser, strongly suggesting the astonishing efficiency levels already achieved in these cells is only part of the journey.

Hubble sees Mars-bound comet sprout multiple jets

Posted: 27 Mar 2014 08:15 AM PDT

A new image of a comet at 353 million miles from Earth shows two jets of dust coming off the comet's nucleus in opposite directions.

Engineered bacteria produce biofuel alternative for high-energy rocket fuel

Posted: 26 Mar 2014 01:09 PM PDT

Researchers have engineered a bacterium to synthesize pinene, a hydrocarbon produced by trees that could potentially replace high-energy fuels, such as JP-10, in missiles and other aerospace applications. By inserting enzymes from trees into the bacterium scientists have boosted pinene production six-fold over earlier bioengineering efforts.

Last drinks: Brain's mechanism knows when to stop

Posted: 26 Mar 2014 07:27 AM PDT

Our brains are hardwired to stop us drinking more water than is healthy, according to a new brain imaging study. The study found a 'stop mechanism' that determined brain signals telling the individual to stop drinking water when no longer thirsty, and the brain effects of drinking more water than required.

Goats are far more clever than previously thought, and have an excellent memory

Posted: 26 Mar 2014 06:26 AM PDT

Goats learn how to solve complicated tasks quickly and can recall how to perform them for at least 10 months, which might explain their remarkable ability to adapt to harsh environments, say researchers. The goats' ability to remember the task was tested after one month and again at 10 months. They learned the task within 12 trials and took less than two minutes to remember the challenge.

Blue-eyed Humans Have A Single, Common Ancestor

Posted: 30 Jan 2008 02:03 PM PST

New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. Scientists have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6,000-10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye color of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News


Northern and southern hemisphere climates follow the beat of different drummers

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:13 PM PDT

Over the last 1000 years, temperature differences between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres were larger than previously thought. Using new data from the Southern Hemisphere, researchers have shown that climate model simulations overestimate the links between the climate variations across the Earth with implications for regional predictions.

Earth's dynamic interior: Multiple compositional components of Earth's deep mantle carried up to surface

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:12 PM PDT

Seeking to better understand the composition of the lowermost part of Earth's mantle, located nearly 2,900 kilometers (1,800 miles) below the surface, researchers have developed new simulations that depict the dynamics of deep Earth. These could be used to explain the complex geochemistry of lava from hotspots such as Hawaii.

New approach to leukemia testing may better define prognosis, treatment

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

Nearly half of patients with the most common form of adult leukemia are said to have normal chromosomes but appear instead to have a distinct pattern of genetic abnormalities that could better define their prognosis and treatment, researchers report. In new work using microarray technology that probes millions of genes within chromosomes, researchers found the unique pattern in the leukemia cells of 22 patients diagnosed with cytogenetically normal acute myelogenous leukemia.

New device simulating human gut will save money, reduce testing on animals

Posted: 28 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

A breakthrough in drug testing could lead to cheaper, more effective medicines. A device has been created that accurately simulates the gastro-intestinal tract and how it absorbs medication. This means that the cost of clinical trials, as well as the use of animals in testing, could be greatly reduced, with savings passed on to customers. 

Hormone levels linked to survival of deer calves, study suggests

Posted: 27 Mar 2014 07:13 AM PDT

Levels of a key hormone in the blood may be important for the survival prospects of newborn animals, a study of wild deer suggests. First-born male deer that have relatively high levels of the male hormone testosterone are less likely to survive their first year compared with their peers, the research shows.

Combating obesity with new Okinawan rice

Posted: 27 Mar 2014 07:03 AM PDT

In recent years, Okinawa has recorded the dubious distinction of having the highest obesity rate in Japan. Preventing obesity-related diseases is an urgent issue. A new research project has been launched to develop a new strain of rice that produces digestion-resistant starch to prevent these diseases. The project involves three activities by the medical, agricultural, and food industries: development of the new rice strain, nutritional and physiological analyses, and processing and sales.

Prestorage conditioning, diphenylamine improve condition of 'honeycrisp' apple

Posted: 26 Mar 2014 12:37 PM PDT

Experiments with 'honeycrisp' apples investigated susceptibility to controlled-atmosphere injury, determined the influence of O2 and CO2, and evaluated options for avoiding injury during controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage. Injury severity declined as the temperature of the prestorage conditioning period increased. Diphenylamine also provided nearly complete control of CA injury. 1-MCP, although not studied in conjunction with a modified atmosphere, caused no injury in air storage and thus may provide an alternative to CA storage for honeycrisp.

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News


Northern and southern hemisphere climates follow the beat of different drummers

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:13 PM PDT

Over the last 1000 years, temperature differences between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres were larger than previously thought. Using new data from the Southern Hemisphere, researchers have shown that climate model simulations overestimate the links between the climate variations across the Earth with implications for regional predictions.

Carbohydrate digestion and obesity strongly linked

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:13 PM PDT

New research indicates that obesity in the general population may be genetically linked to how our bodies digest carbohydrates. People usually have two copies of the gene AMY1, but in some regions of our DNA there can be variability in the number of copies a person carries, which is known as copy number variation. The number of copies of AMY1 can be highly variable between people, and it is believed that higher numbers of copies of the salivary amylase gene have evolved in response to a shift towards diets containing more starch since prehistoric times.

Earth's dynamic interior: Multiple compositional components of Earth's deep mantle carried up to surface

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:12 PM PDT

Seeking to better understand the composition of the lowermost part of Earth's mantle, located nearly 2,900 kilometers (1,800 miles) below the surface, researchers have developed new simulations that depict the dynamics of deep Earth. These could be used to explain the complex geochemistry of lava from hotspots such as Hawaii.

First sightings of solar flare phenomena confirm 3D models of space weather

Posted: 27 Mar 2014 07:13 AM PDT

Scientists have for the first time witnessed the mechanism behind explosive energy releases in the Sun's atmosphere, confirming new theories about how solar flares are created. New footage put together by an international team of researchers shows how entangled magnetic field lines looping from the Sun's surface slip around each other and lead to an eruption 35 times the size of the Earth and an explosive release of magnetic energy into space.