Κυριακή, 30 Σεπτεμβρίου 2012

Newsletter for Sunday 30 September

 

Newsletter - 30 September - Today in Science History

TODAY IN SCIENCE HISTORY
NEWSLETTER - 30 SEPTEMBER

Feature for Today
On 30 Sep 1861, William Wrigley, Jr. was born, the American manufacturer whose advertising campaigns made Wrigley's Chewing Gum internationally known. From humble origins, he turned his company into a multi-million dollar business.

You can read about his commitment to advertising for making his company successful in this magazine article, Make a Good Product for a Fair Price – Then Tell the World, from Illustrated World (1922).


Book of the Day
James Brindley: The First Canal BuilderOn 30 Sep 1772, James Brindley died. He essentially invented the canal in Britain when he was commissioned by the Duke of Bridgwater to construct the Bridgewater Canal. Completed in 1765, it was the first English canal of major economic importance, providing a more efficient way to move coal from the Duke's Worsley mine 16-km (10-mile) to the textile manufacturing centre at Manchester. Today's Science Store pick is James Brindley: The First Canal Builder by canal enthusiast, Nick Corble. This is the first 20th-century Brindley biography, and describes how Brindley's canal-building work made such an important contribution to the Industrial Revolution that he deserves recognition along with Stephenson and Brunel. Price New $40.00. Also available Used from $28.99.
Yesterday's pick: Enrico Fermi, Physicist, by Emilio Segre.
For picks from earlier newsletters, see the Today in Science Science Store home page.

Quotations for Today
"Nothing perhaps has so retarded the reception of the higher conclusions of Geology among men in general, as ... instinctive parsimony of the human mind in matters where time is concerned."
- Charles Lapworth, (born 30 Sep 1842) Quotes Icon
"Balard did not discover bromine, rather bromine discovered Balard."
- Justus von Liebig comment on Antoine J. Balard, French chemist (born 30 Sep 1802) Quotes Icon
"L'art du chercheur c'est d'abord de se trouver un bon patron.
The researcher's art is first of all to find himself a good boss."
- André Michel Lwoff, French microbiologist (born 30 Sep 1902) Quotes Icon

QUIZ
Before you look at today's web page, see if you can answer some of these questions about the events that happened on this day. Some of the names are very familiar. Others will likely stump you. Tickle your curiosity with these questions, then check your answers on today's web page.
Births
A German physicist, born 30 Sep 1882, introduced the first successful detector of individual alpha particles and other ionizing radiations. He used it in experiments that led to the identification of the alpha particle as the nucleus of the helium atom and to Rutherford's determination (1912) that the nucleus of an occupies a very small volume at the centre.
Can you name this man?
Jean-Baptiste Perrin, born 30 Sep 1870, was a French physicist who, in his studies of the Brownian motion of minute particles suspended in liquids, verified Albert Einstein's explanation of this phenomenon and thereby confirmed the atomic nature of matter. He was able to determine by a new method, one of the most important physical constants, for which achievement he was honoured with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1926.  
Can you name the constant he determined?
Deaths
A seismologist (1900-1985) devised a way to describe earthquake intensity which he developed with his colleague, Beno Gutenberg, in the early 1930's. The method assigns numerical ratings to the energy released by earthquakes.
Can you name this scientist?
Events

On 30 Sep 1982, two men completed the first circumnavigation of the world in a helicopter, the Spirit of Texas. Their journey began 29 days, 3 hours, and 8 minutes earlier on September 1. One of the aviators was Jay Colburn.
Who was the other aviator?
On 30 Sep 1929, German auto maker Fritz von Opel made the first manned flight with a new form of power. He flew his Sander RAK 1 craft on a successful flight of 75 seconds, covering almost 2 miles near Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany.
What powered his aircraft?
On 30 Sep 1882, the world's first hydroelectric power plant in the U.S. was opened. Powered by a water wheel, a single dynamo provided 12.5 kilowatts enough for 180 lights, of ten candlepower each. A local paper manufacturer, H.F. Rogers, had been inspired by Thomas Edison's plans for an electricity production station in New York.
In which U.S. state was this first hydroelectric power plant established?

Answers

When you have your answers ready to all the questions above, you'll find all the information to check them, and more, on the September 30 web page of Today in Science History. Or, try this link first for just the brief answers.

Fast answers for the previous newsletter for September 29: Seymour R. Cray; fluorine; Edwin Hubble; amino acids.

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Because there are more risks with having a total knee replacement in both legs at the same time than having a knee replacement in one leg, doctors in recent years have been selecting younger and healthier patients for the bilateral procedure. Now a new study has revealed that although patients are younger and healthier than those undergoing only one-sided surgery, they are becoming sicker and some complication rates have risen.

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Entomologists recently discovered a potentially dangerous new malaria-transmitting mosquito. The as yet unnamed, and previously unreported, mosquito breeds in the western areas of Kenya and has an unknown DNA match to any of the existing malaria-transmitting species.

Time bomb: Military ordnance in Gulf of Mexico poses threat to shipping, says expert

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Marine plants can flee to avoid predators: First observation of predator avoidance behavior by phytoplankton

Posted: 29 Sep 2012 11:03 AM PDT

Scientists have made the first observation of a predator avoidance behavior by a species of phytoplankton, a microscopic marine plant. The scientists made the unexpected observation while studying the interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton.

Therapy over the phone as effective as face-to-face, study suggests

Posted: 29 Sep 2012 11:02 AM PDT

A new study reveals that cognitive therapy over the phone is just as effective as meeting face-to-face.

White shark diets vary with age and among individuals

Posted: 29 Sep 2012 11:02 AM PDT

White sharks, the largest predatory sharks in the ocean, are thought of as apex predators that feed primarily on seals and sea lions. But a new study shows surprising variability in the dietary preferences of individual sharks.

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Posted: 29 Sep 2012 11:02 AM PDT

New figures released to mark World Heart Day show a significant improvement in Europe's heart health. These figures represent the first comprehensive overview of the impact of cardiovascular disease since 2008.

Lack of sleep leads to insulin resistance in teens

Posted: 29 Sep 2012 11:02 AM PDT

A new study suggests that increasing the amount of sleep that teenagers get could improve their insulin resistance and prevent the future onset of diabetes.

Prostate cancer testing and treatment guidelines developed

Posted: 29 Sep 2012 11:02 AM PDT

New prostate cancer articles review and clarify recent updates made to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network's guidelines for the screening and treatment of prostate cancer.

Newspaper sales suffer due to lack of stimulating content, study finds

Posted: 27 Sep 2012 02:49 PM PDT

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