Τετάρτη, 29 Φεβρουαρίου 2012

Science News SciGuru.com

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Irregular heartbeat linked to mental and physical decline

Posted: 29 Feb 2012 06:37 AM PST

McMaster researchers have found a strong association between an irregular heartbeat and an increased risk of dementia.

While it's known that having an irregular heartbeat - also known as atrial fibrillation - raises the risk of dementia among stroke survivors, the new study found this link is evident in individuals with irregular heartbeats who have not suffered a stroke.

The research, conducted by the Population Health Research Institute at McMaster University, appears in the current issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal.

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Plant odor isoprene buffers atmospheric self-cleaning capacity of hydroxyl radicals

Posted: 29 Feb 2012 06:32 AM PST

The atmosphere’s robust capacity to clean itself is owed to the consistent recycling of its cleaning agent. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz have now clarified exactly how hydroxyl radicals, which break up organic compounds in the air, are recycled. According to their findings, the reactive molecules can be produced when isoprene is broken down. Isoprene is released into the atmosphere by plants and was, until now, only known for using up hydroxyl radicals during its chemical cleaning.

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Study challenges guidelines on art therapy for people with schizophrenia

Posted: 29 Feb 2012 06:17 AM PST

Referring people with schizophrenia to group art therapy does not improve their mental health or social functioning, finds a study published in the British Medical Journal today.

The findings challenge national treatment guidelines which recommend that doctors consider referring all people with schizophrenia for arts therapies.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder which affects as many as one in 100 people at some point in their lives. While antipsychotic medication can reduce symptoms, many people continue to experience poor mental health and social functioning.

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Epigenetic changes are heritable, although they do not affect the DNA structure

Posted: 29 Feb 2012 05:11 AM PST

The domestication of chickens has given rise to rapid and extensive changes in genome function. A research team at Linköping University has established that the changes are heritable, although they do not affect the DNA structure.

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Research finds bullies and victims three times more likely to have suicidal thoughts by age 11

Posted: 29 Feb 2012 04:44 AM PST

Children involved in bullying – as both a victim and a bully – are three times more likely to have suicidal thoughts by the time they reach 11 years old, according to research from the University of Warwick.

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Fermi resonance and flip in Raman spectrum in supercritical carbon dioxide

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 09:12 PM PST

Carbon dioxide vibrates when light or heat serenades it. When it does, carbon dioxide exhibits a vibrational puzzle known as Fermi resonance. Now, researchers studying geologic carbon storage have learned a bit more about the nature of carbon dioxide.

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Cancer epigenetics: Cruciferous vegetables with sulforaphane compound prevents cancer

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 11:57 AM PST

A biochemical process of adding a methyl group in the DNA which can be inherited is DNA methylation. Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as sulforaphane present in cruciferous vegetalbes are investigated as possible treatments for cancer. Oregon State University study found that these epigenetic mechanisms play similar role in restoring balance and preventing cancer development.

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Scientists’ findings shed light on body’s iron-absorption process

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 10:22 AM PST

Iron is a key mineral for human health. Too much of it in your body — or too little — can lead to major health problems.

University of Florida researchers have discovered that an iron-absorption process thought to happen only within cell membranes can also happen within the interior of iron-deficient rodents’ intestinal cells. The finding suggests there is at least one unidentified protein involved in iron absorption, and that it may help maintain proper iron levels in the blood by mediating iron extraction from the diet.

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Math Can Save Tylenol Overdose Patients

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 09:50 AM PST

University of Utah mathematicians developed a set of calculus equations to make it easier for doctors to save Tylenol overdose patients by quickly estimating how much painkiller they took, when they consumed it and whether they will require a liver transplant to survive.

“It’s an opportunity to use mathematical methods to improve medical practice and save lives,” says Fred Adler, a professor of mathematics and biology and coauthor of a study that developed and tested the new method.

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Fitness Programs for Minority Adults Lack Cultural Relevance, University of Missouri Study Finds

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 09:42 AM PST

Many leading causes of death are linked to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, including inadequate physical activity. Adults in minority populations have lower levels of physical activity and higher rates of preventable deaths, according to the Department of Health & Human Services. In a new study, University of Missouri researchers found that minority adults who received exercise interventions increased their physical activity levels. However, these interventions are not culturally tailored to best assist minority populations in improving overall health.

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Nurses key in helping new cancer patients overcome fears

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 09:40 AM PST

Often faced with overwhelming anxiety, patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer can find themselves in distress, and new research recommends nurses play a key role in alleviating concerns, leading to a better quality of life for patients.

A diagnosis of lung cancer – the leading cause of cancer death in the United States – brings with it high levels of stress and raises existential issues and death-related thoughts and concerns in patients, said Rebecca H. Lehto, assistant professor in the College of Nursing at Michigan State University.

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Cold air chills heart's oxygen supply

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 09:19 AM PST

People with heart disease may not be able to compensate for their bodies' higher demand for oxygen when inhaling cold air, according to Penn State researchers, making snow shoveling and other activities dangerous for some.

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Predicting children's language development

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 09:07 AM PST

We depend on a barrage of standardized tests to assess everything from aptitude to intelligence. But do they provide an accurate forecast when it comes to something as complex as language? A study by Diane Pesco, an assistant professor in Concordia’s Department of Education, and co-author Daniela O’Neill, published earlier this year in the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, shows that the Language Use Inventory (LUI) does.

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Bacterium fine-tunes proteins for enhanced functionality

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 09:01 AM PST

The bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which causes atypical pneumonia, is helping scientists uncover how cells make the most of limited resources. By measuring all the proteins this bacterium produces, scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, and collaborators, have found that the secret is fine-tuning.

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Hearing Loss Linked to Three-Fold Risk of Falling

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 08:04 AM PST

Hearing loss has been linked with a variety of medical, social and cognitive ills, including dementia. However, a new study led by a Johns Hopkins researcher suggests that hearing loss may also be a risk factor for another huge public health problem: falls.

The finding could help researchers develop new ways to prevent falls, especially in the elderly, and their resulting injuries that generate billions in health care costs in the United States each year, by some estimates.

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Novel molecules of MRT compounds to fight cancer resistance

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 07:53 AM PST

A French-Italian team headed by researchers from CNRS and Inserm has discovered a new family of compounds that could make it possible to treat numerous cancers, particularly brain tumors and skin cancers. These substances, patented by CNRS, block a chain of molecular reactions known as the Hedgehog signaling pathway, the disruption of which could be involved in several cancers. These compounds could become new medicines in the long term.

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Heart Failure Society of America Updates Recommendations for Use of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 07:35 AM PST

Based on a review of the latest evidence, the Guidelines Committee of the Heart Failure Society of America now recommends that the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) be expanded to a larger group of patients with mild heart failure symptoms. Recommendations for integrating new evidence into clinical practice appear in the February issue of the Journal of Cardiac Failure.

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Important Clinical Guide on Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Bazedoxifene, Lasofoxifene for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

Posted: 28 Feb 2012 07:32 AM PST

Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, announced today the publication of an important clinical guide from the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) in the February issue of   Maturitas. This clinical guide details the role of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) against postmenopausal osteoporosis as the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved the use of bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene.

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