Τετάρτη, 25 Ιουνίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Not everyone wants cheering up, new study suggests

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 11:23 AM PDT

You may want to rethink cheering up your friends who have low self-esteem because chances are they don't want to hear it. People with low self-esteem have overly negative views of themselves, and often interpret critical feedback, romantic rejections, or unsuccessful job applications as evidence of their general unworthiness. A new study found that they likely don't want you to try to boost their spirits.

Gender differences could mean more risk for cardiovascular death

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 11:22 AM PDT

One expert is advocating the use of gender-based treatment for mitigating the cardiovascular risk factors related to diabetes. Research has shown women with Type 2 diabetes and high cholesterol are less likely than their male peers to reach treatment goals to lower their bad cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.

Prior drug use is greatest predictor of ecstasy use among U.S. high school seniors

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 10:58 AM PDT

A national sample of high school seniors was examined to determine who is currently at high risk for ecstasy use. Although ecstasy use in the U.S. is not as prevalent as in the late 1990s and early 2000s, its use remains popular among adolescents and young adults. The authors feel the popularity of ecstasy use may be related to increasing popularity of electronic dance festivals.

BMI measurement may be missing 25 percent of children who could be considered obese

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 10:57 AM PDT

Physicians using body mass index (BMI) to diagnose children as obese may be missing 25 percent of kids who have excess body fat despite a normal BMI, which can be a serious concern for long-term health, according to a study. The researchers found that BMI has high specificity in identifying pediatric obesity, meaning BMI accurately identifies children who are obese, but has a moderate sensitivity, meaning the BMI tool misses children who actually should be considered obese, according to the percent of fat in their bodies.

Role of cohesin in cancer revised by researcher

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 08:07 AM PDT

The role of cohesin, its regulation, as well as its recently identified function as a potential driver or facilitator for tumors has been explained and revised by an international expert in cohesin. The challenge now is to understand the link between cohesin and the development and evolution of cancer, an area where there is currently little data.

Virus kills triple negative breast cancer cells, tumor cells in mice

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 08:07 AM PDT

A virus not known to cause disease kills triple-negative breast cancer cells and killed tumors grown from these cells in mice, according to researchers. Understanding how the virus kills cancer may lead to new treatments for breast cancer. "These results are significant, since tumor necrosis -- or death -- in response to therapy is also used as the measure of an effective chemotherapeutic," one researcher said.

Cell division discovery could optimize timing of chemotherapy, explain some cancers

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 08:07 AM PDT

A new study has been able to demonstrate how the cycle of cell division in mammalian cells synchronizes with the body's own daily rhythm, its circadian clock. The study not only helps to explain why people with sustained disrupted circadian rhythms can be more susceptible to cancer, it may also help establish the optimal time of day to administer chemotherapy.

UK's National Health Service: Committed to failure?

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 08:06 AM PDT

A project has failed. So why continue to invest in it? This is a pertinent question for large organizations, like the UK National Health Service, which has a history of investing vast amounts of taxpayer's money into unrealistic and ultimately unsuccessful projects. According to business experts, organizations develop blind spots due to a perfect storm of unworkable policies and defensive behavior.

New possibilities for leukemia therapy with novel mode of leukemia cell recognition

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 08:05 AM PDT

A new class of lipids in the leukemia cells that are detected by a unique group of immune cells has been discovered by researchers. By recognizing the lipids, the immune cells stimulate an immune response to destroy the leukemia cells and suppress their growth. The newly identified mode of cancer cell recognition by the immune system opens up new possibilities for leukemia immunotherapy.

Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome are 5 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 08:05 AM PDT

Young women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have a startlingly higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, even if young and not overweight, a leading expert on reproductive health says. "With the dramatic rise in diabetes, this research highlights the need for greater awareness and screening, especially in high risk groups including young women with PCOS."

Sweet, sweet straw: Scientists learn to produce sweetener from straw and fungi

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:58 AM PDT

The calorie free sweetener erythritol is widely used in Asia; it is also gaining popularity in Europe and America. Now, a new cheap method has been developed to produce erythritol from straw with the help of mould fungi. Erythritol has many great advantages: it does not make you fat, it does not cause tooth decay, it has no effect on the blood sugar and, unlike other sweeteners, it does not have a laxative effect.

Should universities censor students on social media?

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:58 AM PDT

Huge increases in the use of social media by students have posed difficult ethical questions for Universities. Comments posted on sites such as Facebook are often 'stream of consciousness' thoughts, expressed with little regard to their potential impact. Sometimes, they constitute serious transgressions, including racism, homophobia, violent threats and admissions of plagiarism.  Do Universities have a duty of care to intervene for staff and student well-being?  Should freedom of speech be upheld?

Gene in brain linked to kidney cancer, researchers say

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:58 AM PDT

A gene known to control brain growth and development is heavily involved in promoting clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the most common form of kidney cancer, researchers are reporting. The research reveals that the gene NPTX2, plays an essential role in this cancer type, which is resistant to common chemotherapy and has a five-year overall survival rate of less than 10 percent in patients with metastatic disease.

The truth behind the '5-second rule': When in doubt, throw it out, expert says

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:57 AM PDT

The burger patty that slides off the plate, the ice cream treat that plops on the picnic table, the hot dog that rolls off the grill -- conventional wisdom has it that you have five seconds to pick it up before it is contaminated. Fact or folklore? "A dropped item is immediately contaminated and can't really be sanitized," explains one researcher. "When it comes to folklore, the 'five-second rule' should be replaced with 'When in doubt, throw it out.' "

Aging accelerates genomic changes, signaling challenges for personalized medicine

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:52 AM PDT

Aging can occur at different rates within an individual's genome, with some portions aging 100 times faster than others, research shows. This makes personalized medicine even more challenging, which makes use of genomic information to predict future diseases and treatments. With genomes continually shifting over time, the monitoring of genomic health will require more frequent measurement of patients' genomes.

Potential new treatment approach for lung cancer

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:52 AM PDT

More than a third of all human cancers are driven by mutations in a family of genes known as Ras. Ras has long been considered to be a target that does not respond to cancer treating drugs, but recent research suggests new possibilities. Investigators have demonstrated that targeting a metabolic dependency downstream of Ras could provide therapeutic benefit to patients with Ras-driven lung cancers.

Fat of the bone: Exercise, diabetes affect amount of fat inside bones

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:50 AM PDT

A new kind of imaging technique shows how exercise and diabetes drugs affect the amount of fat inside our bones, which could play roles in the health of our bones. Our bones are not stagnant, rock-like things. They change. Marrow -- the tissue inside bones -- is full of various kinds of cells. And marrow is also full of fat. The amounts of these cells and fats can decrease or increase over time. And the production of these marrow cells and fat depend on a specific type of progenitor cell called a mesenchymal stem cell.

Challenges of visual accessibility for people with low vision

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:50 AM PDT

New approaches and tools are needed to improve visual accessibility for people with low vision in the "real world," according to experts. Low vision is defined as chronically impaired vision that is not correctable by glasses or contact lenses and adversely affects everyday functioning. It is estimated that there are between 3.5 million and 5 million Americans with low vision, and this number is expected to increase as the population ages.

Kids' risks from toxic metals in dirt downplayed when measured with standard tools

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:50 AM PDT

A new laboratory method may improve risk estimates of children's soil exposures. As the study explains, soil ingestion is one of the most important pathways through which children are exposed to toxic substances. Children have higher exposure rates from soil than adults because of their hand-to-mouth behavior. As they play outside in dirt mounds and playgrounds, there is a risk that children will ingest soil particles and heavy metals which may have been underestimated by researchers to date.

Cure for HIV is a 'major scientific priority'

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

Huge advancements have taken place in HIV treatment and prevention over the past 10 years, but there is still no cure or vaccine. A new review shows that because of advancements in treatment, people with the virus are living longer. Overall, new infections have decreased from 3.3 million in 2002 to 2.3 million in 2012. Global AIDS-related deaths peaked at 2.3 million in 2005, decreasing to 1.6 million by 2012.

More bicyclists on road means fewer collisions, study shows

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

Bicyclist safety significantly increases when there are more bikes on the road, according to a study examining collisions between bicycles and motorists. This finding could be attributed to a 'safety in numbers effect.' As bicycling increases in cities across the U.S. each year, the results could have national implications. "In fact, we are beginning to find that cities with a high level of bicycling are not just safer for cyclists but for all road users," one author said. "Improving the streets to better accommodate bicycles may enhance safety for everyone."

Exploring the brain: New findings explain how eyes link to prefrontal cortex

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

A research team has linked how our eyes actually see the world to neurons in the prefrontal cortex of the brain. The team studied saccadic eye movements -- those movements where the eye jumps from one point of focus to another -- in an effort to determine exactly how this happens without us being overcome by our brains processing too much visual information.

Computer-aided diagnosis of rare genetic disorders from family snaps

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

Computer analysis of photographs could help doctors diagnose which condition a child with a rare genetic disorder has, say researchers. The researchers have come up with a computer program that recognizes facial features in photographs; looks for similarities with facial structures for various conditions, such as Down's syndrome, Angelman syndrome, or Progeria; and returns possible matches ranked by likelihood.

Schizophrenia and cannabis use may share common genes

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

Genes that increase the risk of developing schizophrenia may also increase the likelihood of using cannabis, according to a new study. Previous studies have identified a link between cannabis use and schizophrenia, but it has remained unclear whether this association is due to cannabis directly increasing the risk of the disorder. The new results suggest that part of this association is due to common genes.

Facelock: New password alternative which plays to the strengths of human memory

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

Forgotten passwords are a serious problem for both IT managers and users. The root of the problem is a trade-off between memorability and security: simple passwords are easy to remember but easy to crack; complex passwords are hard to crack but hard to remember. A newly proposed alternative based on the psychology of face recognition was announced today. Dubbed 'Facelock', it could put an end to forgotten passwords, and protect users from prying eyes.

Sleeping sickness: the tsetse fly genome decoded

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:32 AM PDT

The genome of the tsetse fly has been decoded at last. Ten years of work made it possible for a consortium of 145 scientists to publish the DNA sequence for the vector for sleeping sickness. This result is highly significant as the biology of the tsetse is unique. The information contained in its genome is fundamental for better understanding and controlling the fly. Vector control is still essential for controlling the disease without a vaccine and due to difficult treatments.

Chagas' disease: A return announced

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:32 AM PDT

Despite deinsectization campaigns conducted in many Latin American countries, bugs called Triatoma infestans, the main vector species for Chagas' disease, are now reappearing in villages in several regions. Wild populations of Triatoma infestans are recolonizing dwellings. The latter seem very close genetically to their domestic congeners and therefore, like their domestic counterparts, are able to adapt to humans. These wild bugs thus represent a significant risk for the re-emergence of Chagas' disease, as one out of two has been shown to carry the parasite responsible for the infection.

Howzat eyesight? New study analyses how cricketers' visual skills change with age

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:25 AM PDT

Scientists will investigate how cricket players' ability to play shots changes over the course of a lifetime in a new study into eye movements and skill learning. Using sophisticated camera technology to monitor where participants look, researchers will use a computer task to assess how long it takes for cricketers of different ages to learn to look in the right place at the right time.

Cancer 'as old as multi-cellular life on Earth': Researchers discover a primordial cancer in a primitive animal

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:25 AM PDT

Can cancer ever be completely defeated? Researchers have now reached a sobering conclusion: "cancer is as old as multi-cellular life on Earth and will probably never be completely eradicated," says one expert, following his latest research results. The researchers have now achieved an impressive understanding of the roots of cancer, providing proof that tumors indeed exist in primitive and evolutionary old animals.

Puzzle games can improve mental flexibility, study shows

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:25 AM PDT

Want to improve your mental finesse? Playing a puzzle game like Cut the Rope could just be the thing you need. A recent study showed that adults who played the physics-based puzzle video game Cut the Rope regularly, for as little as an hour a day, had improved executive functions. The executive functions in your brain are important for making decisions in everyday life when you have to deal with sudden changes in your environment -- better known as thinking on your feet.

Effect of anxiety, adrenaline, fatigue for a soccer player: Mexican study of UK players

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:25 AM PDT

Some of the most common injuries in soccer players are violent joint sprains and muscle strains in the legs, which are sometimes caused by anxiety and fatigue accumulated after several games in a few weeks. To verify that these are the most common injuries, a was launched study in Britain, where 91 professional soccer teams were evaluated during a tournament and recorded 6,030 lesions, of which 23 percent were in the thighs and 17 were performed in knees or ankles.

Pushing cells towards a higher pluripotency state

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:25 AM PDT

Stem cells have the unique ability to become any type of cell. The possibility that they can be cultured and engineered in the lab makes them an attractive option for regenerative medicine. However, some conditions that are commonly used for culturing human stem cells may render the cells unusable for clinical use. These conditions cannot be avoided, however, as they help maintain the pluripotency of the stem cells. A group of researchers has gained new insight into the role of CCL2, a chemokine known to be involved in the immune response, in the enhancement of stem cell pluripotency.

Many ER patients test positive for HIV while in most infectious stage

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 07:50 PM PDT

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening for emergency patients at an institution with a large number of ethnic minority, underinsured and uninsured people reveals few are HIV positive, but of those who are, nearly one-quarter are in the acute phase and more than one-quarter have infections that have already advanced to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Rate of hospitalization for severe heart attacks in China quadruples in 10 years

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 07:50 PM PDT

The rate of hospitalization for the most serious type of heart attack, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, more than quadrupled in China between 2001 and 2011, according to new research. The analysis shows that despite improving quality of care in the past decade, substantial gaps still persist. Although the use of some highly effective treatments for heart attack increased over the decade, other therapies known to reduce mortality in STEMI patients remain very underused.

Calcium, vitamin D supplementation improves metabolic profile of pregnant women with gestational diabetes

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 07:50 PM PDT

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation improves the metabolic profile of pregnant women with gestational diabetes, new research shows. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a pregnancy complication, is characterized by carbohydrate intolerance and metabolic disorders. Approximately 7% of all pregnancies in the United States are affected by GDM, but the prevalence ranges from 1 to 14% of all pregnancies in the world depending on the population studied and the diagnostic criteria used.

It is time to abandon obesity myths, experts say

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 07:49 PM PDT

Researchers say it is time to abandon some popular but erroneous obesity myths. In a new article, the team presents nine obesity myths and 10 commonly held but unproven presumptions that the authors suggest lead to poor policy decisions, inaccurate public health recommendations and wasted resources.

Cocoa extract may counter specific mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 07:49 PM PDT

Insights into mechanisms behind cocoa's benefit may lead to new treatments or dietary regimens for those suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Lavado cocoa is primarily composed of polyphenols, antioxidants also found in fruits and vegetables, with past studies suggesting that they prevent degenerative diseases of the brain.

Fatal cellular malfunction identified in Huntington's disease

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 07:49 PM PDT

Researchers believe they have learned how mutations in the gene that causes Huntington's disease kill brain cells, a finding that could open new opportunities for treating the fatal disorder. Huntington's disease is caused by a defect in the huntingtin gene, which makes the huntingtin protein. Life expectancy after initial onset is about 20 years.

Picture books for visually impaired kids go 3-D

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 12:51 PM PDT

A children's classic that already is a candidate for the all-time best feel-good book, 'Goodnight Moon,' has gotten a boost: Researchers printed the first 3D version of it, allowing visually impaired children and their families to touch objects in the story -- like the cow jumping over the moon -- as it is read aloud.

Diabetes susceptibility gene regulates health of cell's powerhouse, study finds

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:43 AM PDT

A research team has found that a susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes regulates self-destruction of the cell's energy factory. The pathway central to this gene could be targeted for prevention and control of type-1 diabetes and may extend to the treatment of other metabolic-associated diseases.

Learning by repetition impairs recall of details, study shows

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:20 AM PDT

While repetition enhances the factual content of memories, it can reduce the amount of detail stored with those memories, neurobiologists report following a recent study. This means that with repeated recall, nuanced aspects may fade away.

Scientists use X-rays to look at how DNA protects itself from UV light

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:20 AM PDT

The molecular building blocks that make up DNA absorb ultraviolet light so strongly that sunlight should deactivate them -- yet it does not. Now scientists have made detailed observations of a 'relaxation response' that protects these molecules, and the genetic information they encode, from UV damage.

By any stretch: New software harnesses computer vision to more accurately measure infant length

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:20 AM PDT

After the hectic delivery experience, newborns are almost immediately stretched out on an uncomfortable measuring board to assess their length because it serves as an indispensable marker of growth, health, and development. Researchers are now using new software that harnesses computer vision to more accurately measure infant length. The technique is much easier on infants and at least as accurate as conventional measuring methods.

Among weight loss methods, surgery and drugs achieve highest patient satisfaction

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:19 AM PDT

Obese and overweight Americans who have tried losing weight report far greater overall satisfaction with weight loss surgery and prescription weight loss medications than with diet, exercise and other self-modification methods, an Internet survey finds.

'Smat pill' reduces weight in overweight and obese subjects

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:18 AM PDT

A new 'smart pill' called Gelesis100 leads to greater weight loss in overweight and obese individuals compared with those who receive an active comparator/placebo capsule, while all subjects have similar diet and exercise instructions, a new study finds.

Gut microbe levels are linked to type 2 diabetes and obesity

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:18 AM PDT

People with Type 2 diabetes or obesity have changes in the composition of their intestinal micro-organisms —- called the gut microbiota -— that healthy people do not have, researchers have found.

Growth hormone treatment for children may exacerbate feelings of depression

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:18 AM PDT

Short, otherwise healthy children who are treated with growth hormone (GH) may become taller, but they may also become more depressed and withdrawn over time, compared to children the same age and height who are not treated with GH, a new study finds. "This novel study of the cognitive and emotional effects of GH therapy in children with GHD and ISS compared to untreated short children raises concerns that, despite improvements in height, these children may not achieve psychosocial benefits," one researcher said.

Young indoor tanning increases early risk of skin cancer

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:18 AM PDT

Early exposure to the ultraviolet radiation lamps used for indoor tanning is related to an increased risk of developing basal cell carcinomas (BCC) at a young age, researchers confirm. Since indoor tanning has become increasingly popular among adolescents and young adults, this research calls attention to the importance of counseling young people about the risk of indoor tanning. The study notes that indoor tanning products can produce 10 to 15 times as much UV radiation as the midday sun.

Offer kids whole grains; they'll eat them, study shows

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:17 AM PDT

Most parents don't feed their kids whole grains under the assumption children will find them bland. But a new study shows if you offer the children whole grains, they will eat them. Eating whole grains, combined with a healthy diet, may reduce the risk of heart disease and help with weight management. Examples of whole-grain foods include popcorn, oats, whole wheat bread and brown rice.

High testosterone may predict more shallow sleep in overweight or obese men

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:17 AM PDT

In overweight and obese men, higher testosterone levels are associated with poorer sleep quality, according to a new study.

Bone loss persists two years after weight loss surgery

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:17 AM PDT

For at least two years after bariatric surgery, patients continue to lose bone, even after their weight stabilizes, research shows. Gastric bypass is the most common type of weight loss surgery. "The long-term consequences of this substantial bone loss are unclear, but it might put them at increased risk of fracture, or breaking a bone," said the study's principal investigator.

Air apparent: Using bubbles to reveal fertility problems

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:17 AM PDT

Doctors in California are the first fertility specialists in the county to use a new ultrasound technique to assess fallopian tubes by employing a mixture of saline and air bubbles that is less painful, avoids X-ray exposure and is more convenient to patients during an already vulnerable time. Using the technique, the physician delivers the mixture of saline and air bubbles into the uterus through a small catheter, which then flows into the fallopian tubes. Under ultrasound, the air bubbles are highly visible as they travel through the tubes, allowing the physician to determine if a blockage exists.

Antibiotic developed 50 years ago may be the key to fighting 'superbugs'

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 11:17 AM PDT

Novel dosing regimens for polymyxin combinations to maximize antibacterial activity and to minimize the emergence of resistance and toxicity -- this has been the focus of a recent research study. Developed more than 50 years ago, polymyxins were not subject to modern antibiotic drug development standards. And they have proved to be toxic to both the kidneys and nervous system.

Cancer chain in cell membrane seen with supercomputers

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 10:14 AM PDT

Supercomputer simulations reveal clusters of a protein linked to cancer warp cell membranes -- findings could help design new anticancer drugs. Researchers used XSEDE/TACC supercomputers Lonestar and Stampede to simulate molecular dynamics of Ras protein clusters at the cell membrane. Simulations give greater understanding of Ras protein role in cancer and provide models for further experimental tests.

Possible answer to chemo pain found in multiple sclerosis drug

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 10:13 AM PDT

Two discoveries have been described by researchers: a molecular pathway by which a painful chemotherapy side effect happens and a drug that may be able to stop it. "The chemotherapy drug paclitaxel is widely used to treat many forms of cancer, including breast, ovarian and lung cancers," said one researcher. "Though it is highly effective, the medication, like many other chemotherapy drugs, frequently is accompanied by a debilitating side effect called chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy, or CIPN."

Wearable computing gloves can teach Braille, even if you're not paying attention

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 10:13 AM PDT

Researchers are using a wearable computing technology to help people learn how to read and write Braille. Those learning the skills are able to do so while concentrating on something else.

Ways to improve type 2 diabetes treatments under investigation

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 10:12 AM PDT

A better understanding of how the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARgamma) works is critical to find new ways to improve medications to treat type 2 diabetes. Drugs that activate PPARgamma, called thiazolidinediones, have long been regarded as a treatment for type 2 diabetes based on their anti-inflammatory and potent insulin-sensitizing activity.

Sharpening a test for tracing food-borne illness to source

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 10:11 AM PDT

Research could make it easier for public health investigators to determine if a case of food poisoning is an isolated incident or part of a larger outbreak. The study focuses on a test called multi-locus variable number tandem repeats variable analysis (MLVA). The test, which is increasingly used in the detection and investigation of foodborne outbreaks, analyzes specific sequences of DNA (called loci) that change rapidly enough over time to distinguish outbreak strains from other circulating strains of the bacteria but not so rapidly that connections could be masked by changes arising during the course of an outbreak.

People who are obese or former smokers more likely to follow recommended statin therapy

Posted: 23 Jun 2014 10:11 AM PDT

Lifestyle factors can help predict whether people will adhere to statin therapy for high cholesterol, a new study suggests. Among people without heart disease and diabetes, those who are overweight, obese or former smokers are more likely to adhere to statin therapy. People with cardiovascular comorbidities, heavy drinkers and extreme drinkers (people who passed out from alcohol consumption) were substantially more likely to be nonadherent than nondrinkers.

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