Πέμπτη, 26 Ιουνίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News


Watching too much TV may increase risk of early death: Three hours a day linked to premature death from any cause

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 03:48 PM PDT

Adults who watch TV three hours or more a day may double their risk of premature death from any cause. Researchers suggest adults should consider getting regular exercise, avoiding long sedentary periods and reducing TV viewing to one to two hours a day.

Vegetarian diets produce fewer greenhouse gases and increase longevity, say new studies

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 11:55 AM PDT

Consuming a plant-based diet results in a more sustainable environment and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, while improving longevity, according to new research. Based on findings that identified food systems as a significant contributor to global warming, the study focuses on the dietary patterns of vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians to quantify and compare greenhouse gas emissions, as well as assess total mortality.

Neural sweet talk: Taste metaphors emotionally engage the brain

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 11:12 AM PDT

Researchers have found that taste-related metaphors such as 'sweet' actually engage the emotional centers of the brain more than literal words such as 'kind' that have the same meaning. If metaphors in general elicit a similar emotional response, that could mean that figurative language presents a 'rhetorical advantage' when communicating with others.

Marriage and healthy hearts: Correlation between unhappy marital interactions, cardiovascular disease risk

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 10:26 AM PDT

The affairs of the heart may actually affect the affairs of the heart in ways previously not understood. "Growing evidence suggests that the quality and patterns of one's social relationships may be linked with a variety of health outcomes, including heart disease," says one researcher.

Using math to analyze movement of cells, organisms, disease

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 10:25 AM PDT

Math has been used by researchers to analyze movement of organisms and cells and transmission of disease in populations. Three recent articles have been published that focus on these issues.

Scientists unearth what may be secret weapon against antibiotic resistance

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 10:23 AM PDT

A fungus living in the soils of Nova Scotia could offer new hope in the pressing battle against drug-resistant germs that kill tens of thousands of people every year, including one considered a serious global threat. Seeking an answer to the riddle of resistance in the natural environment is a far more promising approach than trying to discover new antibiotics, a challenge which has perplexed scientists for decades. No new classes of antibiotics have been discovered since the late 1980s, leaving physicians with very few tools to fight life-threatening infections.

For the next generation: Democracy ensures we don't take it all with us

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 10:23 AM PDT

Given the chance to vote, people will leave behind a legacy of resources that ensures the survival of the next generation, a series of experiments by psychologists show. However, when people are left to their own devices, the next generation isn't so lucky.

Fruits, vegetables: Good for health, not necessarily a weight loss method

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 10:18 AM PDT

People trying to lose weight are often told to eat more fruits and vegetables, but new research shows this bit of advice may not be true. "Across the board, all studies we reviewed showed a near-zero effect on weight loss," the lead author said. "So I don't think eating more alone is necessarily an effective approach for weight loss because just adding them on top of whatever foods a person may be eating is not likely to cause weight change."

New device allows brain to bypass spinal cord, move paralyzed limbs

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 10:01 AM PDT

For the first time ever, a paralyzed man can move his fingers and hand with his own thoughts thanks to a new device. A 23-year-old quadriplegic is the first patient to use Neurobridge, an electronic neural bypass for spinal cord injuries that reconnects the brain directly to muscles, allowing voluntary and functional control of a paralyzed limb.

New method increases targeted bone volume by 30 percent

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 08:48 AM PDT

In an important development for the health of elderly people, researchers have developed a new method to target bone growth. As people age their bones lose density and, especially in women after the menopause, become more brittle. The new method developed offers the possibility of more effective treatment than currently available.

Adaptive potential of hybridization in mosquito species

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 08:48 AM PDT

A natural experiment created by insecticidal pressure to determine how the most important malaria vectors -- A. gambiae s.s. and A. coluzzii -- respond rapidly to environmental change has been conducted by researchers. Researchers sequenced the genomes of individual wild mosquitoes of each species from southern Ghana. The results reveal that transfer of a major insecticide resistance mutation resulted in replacement of over 3 million surrounding DNA bases of one to the other. This is especially significant because the two species are very closely related and the region replaced is one of relatively few areas of their genomes that are substantially different.

Adding element to standard treatment in post-gemcitabine metastatic pancreatic cancer improves survival

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 08:47 AM PDT

Adding the novel MM-398 to standard treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer patients who have already received gemcitabine improves survival, researchers have said. "One of the biggest challenges in pancreatic cancer is drug delivery. "MM-398 (nal-IRI) is a nanoliposomal irinotecan: this delivery system allows longer drug exposure in the circulation and more accumulation of the drug and its active metabolite SN38 at the tumor site," said one author.

Diet or exercise? 'Energy balance' real key to disease prevention

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 08:46 AM PDT

A majority of Americans are overweight or obese, a factor in the rapid rise in common diseases like diabetes, heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure and more. According to research, energy balance is a viable public health solution to address the obesity epidemic. A new paper outlines steps to incorporate energy balance principles into public health outreach in the U.S.

Deploying midwives in poorest nations could avert millions of maternal, newborn deaths

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 08:46 AM PDT

A modest increase in the number of skilled midwives in the world's poorest nations could save the lives of a substantial number of women and their babies, according to new analyses. Maternal mortality is a leading cause of death for women in many developing countries and public health efforts to avert it have only made headway in a few countries.

Master regulator of key cancer gene found, offers new drug target

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:17 AM PDT

A key cancer-causing gene, responsible for up to 20 percent of cancers, may have a weak spot in its armor, according to new research. The partnership of MYC, a gene long linked to cancer, and a non-coding RNA, PVT1, could be the key to understanding how MYC fuels cancer cells.

Reproduction later in life is a marker for longevity in women

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:17 AM PDT

Women who are able to naturally have children later in life tend to live longer and the genetic variants that allow them to do so might also facilitate exceptionally long life spans, according to a new study.

First year university students struggle to remember basic concepts learned the year before

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:16 AM PDT

University freshers struggle to remember basic concepts from their A-level studies according to new U.K. research. A new report shows that even grade-A students could only remember 40 percent of their A-Level syllabus by the first week of term at university.

Link unlikely between insomnia symptoms, high blood pressure, study concludes

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:16 AM PDT

Insomnia does not put people at increased risk of developing high blood pressure, a new study has concluded. The study is believed to be the first to examine for hypertension among individuals who self-reported various frequencies of insomnia symptoms. "By showing there is no link between this very common sleep disorder and high blood pressure, physicians can be more selective when prescribing sleeping pills and refrain from prescribing these medications from a cardio-protective perspective," said the author.

First comprehensive pediatric concussion guidelines available now

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:16 AM PDT

Evidence-based recommendations to standardize the diagnosis and management of concussion in children have just been published. These new guidelines provide healthcare providers with evidence-based recommendations to standardize the diagnosis and management of concussion in children aged 5 to 18 years old, from the initial assessment through to the period of recovery (which might last months.)

Deep brain stimulation improves non motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease as well as motor symptoms

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:15 AM PDT

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a well-recognized non-pharmacologic treatment that improves motor symptoms of patients with early and advanced Parkinson's disease. Evidence now indicates that DBS can decrease the number and severity of non motor symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as well, according to a review.

New device could improve biomarker analyses

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:15 AM PDT

A new devise could offer a more reliable alternative for detecting biomarkers in patients facing such illnesses as cancer or malaria. Whether to extract circulating tumor cells from the blood of a cancer patient, or to measure the elasticity of red blood cells due to malaria infection, the physical attributes of cells are important biomarkers in medicine.

Invisibility cloak for immune cells keeps system healthy

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:13 AM PDT

The human immune system is very complex. A large number of different cells with various functions ensure that invading microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria can quickly be rendered innocuous and the entire organism stays healthy. Researchers have now discovered what keeps certain cells of the immune system healthy: concealing their stress with a camouflage cloak that renders them invisible to the "killer" cells.

Insects as the food of the future: Locusts, grasshoppers, crickets, silk moth pupae, and beetle and moth larvae

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:12 AM PDT

As the human population grows, it is critical that the drain on the planet's resources be lessened by decreasing consumption of animal protein. Insects are a promising, economically viable alternative source of high quality protein that leave a substantially smaller environmental footprint.

3-D computer model may help refine target for deep brain stimulation therapy for dystonia

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:11 AM PDT

Using a complex set of data from records and imaging scans of patients who have undergone successful DBS implantation, researchers have created 3-D, computerized models that map the brain region involved in dystonia. The models identify an anatomical target for further study and provide information for neurologists and neurosurgeons to consider when planning surgery and making device programming decisions.

Animal testing methods for some chemicals should change, experts urge

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:11 AM PDT

Challenging risk assessment methods used for decades by toxicologists, a new review of the literature suggests that oral gavage, the most widely accepted method of dosing lab animals to test chemical toxicity, does not accurately mimic how humans are exposed to chemicals in everyday life. Oral gavage refers to the way researchers give chemicals to animals by putting a tube down their throats to deliver substances directly to the stomach. It has been used for decades and is the dosing scheme preferred for assessing potential toxicity of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

Researchers treat incarceration as a disease epidemic, discover small changes help

Posted: 25 Jun 2014 07:11 AM PDT

By treating incarceration as an infectious disease, researchers show that small differences in prison sentences can lead to large differences in incarceration rates. The incarceration rate has nearly quadrupled since the U.S. declared a war on drugs, researchers say. Along with that, racial disparities abound. Incarceration rates for black Americans are more than six times higher than those for white Americans, according to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

A fifth of children visiting their doctor with a persistent cough could have whooping cough

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:00 PM PDT

Whooping cough has been found in a fifth of UK school age children visiting their doctor with a persistent cough, even though most have been fully vaccinated, a study finds. Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly transmissible infection which can cause symptoms such as coughing, vomiting and whooping. However, whooping cough can lead to serious complications in unvaccinated infants.

High doses of antibiotics may have potential to promote increased cross-resistance

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 07:00 PM PDT

An experimental evolution approach has been used by researchers to evolve 88 different E. coli populations against 22 antibiotics, under 'strong' and 'mild' selection conditions. Results demonstrate that the evolution of cross-resistance depends on selection strength. Overall, they found evidence for higher cross-resistance in the strongly selected strains and higher numbers of pathway-specific mutations.

Adults with Asperger syndrome at significantly higher risk of suicidal thoughts than general population

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:59 PM PDT

Adults with the autism spectrum condition known as Asperger Syndrome are nine times more likely to experience suicidal thoughts than people from the general population, according to the first large-scale clinical study of its kind. Autism spectrum conditions are a group of developmental brain conditions that cause difficulties in communication and social interaction, alongside the presence of unusually narrow interests and difficulties in adapting to change. In Asperger Syndrome, people show the key symptoms but without delayed language or intellectual disability.

Growing up poor impacts physical, mental illness in young adults

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:58 PM PDT

Socioeconomic adversity during childhood increases the likelihood of both depression and higher body mass index (BMI) in early adolescence, which can worsen and lead to illness for young adults, according to a new report. The study found that growth in depressive symptoms were predictive of the incidence of sexually transmitted infections while growth in BMI was associated with several health risk measures, including blood pressure, blood glucose, and overall health rating.

Study of over 450,000 women finds 3-D mammography detects more invasive cancers and reduces call-back rates

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:51 PM PDT

Researchers have found that 3D mammography —- known as digital breast tomosynthesis —- found significantly more invasive, or potentially lethal, cancers than a traditional mammogram alone and reduced call-backs for additional imaging.

New technologies will bring health benefits of oats and barley to a greater number of foods

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 06:51 PM PDT

New technologies may help food manufacturers more broadly utilize the many healthful benefits of oats and barley in a greater range of food products.

Nanoparticles could provide easier route for cell therapy

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 02:23 PM PDT

Physics researchers may have developed a way to use laser technology to deliver drug and gene therapy at the cellular level without damaging surrounding tissue. The method eventually could help patients suffering from genetic conditions, cancers and neurological diseases. A significant advantage of the new method is that the near-infrared light absorption of the nanoparticle can be used to selectively amplify interaction of low power laser with targeted tissue and "laser induced-damage to non-targeted cells along the irradiation path can be avoided," the report says.

Cognition in multiple sclerosis: Researchers publish results of one of the longest longitudinal studies

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 02:22 PM PDT

One of the longest longitudinal studies of cognition in multiple sclerosis has been completed, and its results published. These results provide insight into the natural evolution of cognitive changes over time, an important consideration for researchers and clinicians. "These longitudinal data contribute substantially to our knowledge of the course of cognitive decline in MS," noted one expert.

Collaboration of minds and metal leads to possible shortcut to new drugs

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 02:21 PM PDT

Researchers merged two powerful areas of research to enable an unprecedented chemical reaction that neither could broadly achieve on its own. The resulting bond formation could provide an excellent shortcut for chemists as they construct and test thousands of molecules to find new drugs.

Hormones affect voting behavior, researchers find

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 02:21 PM PDT

Psychology and political science professors finds people with high levels of a stress hormone are less likely to vote. As witnessed by recent voter turnout in primary elections, participation in U.S. national elections is low, relative to other western democracies. In fact, voter turnout in biennial national elections ranges includes only 40 to 60 percent of eligible voters.

How mutated X-linked mental retardation protein impairs neuron function

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 02:21 PM PDT

There are new clues about malfunctions in brain cells that contribute to intellectual disability and possibly other developmental brain disorders. A CSHL team has discovered how defects in an X-linked mental retardation protein, OPHN1, can lead to impairments in the maturation and adjustment of synaptic strength of excitatory neurons in the brain.

Engineered muscle-mimic research: Technique uses living cells to build engineered muscle tissue

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 02:18 PM PDT

Biomedical engineers are designing and testing a biomaterial that regenerates damaged skeletal muscle. Living cells secrete fibrous proteins and polysaccharide gels called extracellular matrix, which support cell survival and tissue strength. Minor muscle injuries affect tissue cells but not the extracellular components. In severe injuries, however, the extracellular matrix does not function properly and cannot initiate the healing process. Engineered "muscle-mimics" provide the molecules necessary to cue regeneration.

Synthetic Triterpenoids Show Promise in Preventing Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 10:58 AM PDT

A class of small antioxidant molecules carries enormous promise for suppressing colon cancer associated with colitis. These findings offer hope that physicians ultimately will be able to reduce dramatically the number of sufferers of this inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who go on to develop colon cancer.

Sleep, mood improves after substantial weight loss

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 10:57 AM PDT

Obese adults who lose at least 5 percent of their body weight report that they sleep better and longer after six months of weight loss, according to a new study.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery may reduce heart disease risk for obese patients with type 2 diabetes

Posted: 24 Jun 2014 10:57 AM PDT

Obese patients with Type 2 diabetes who don't have excessive surgical risk may find that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery can help them reduce their risk of heart disease, a new clinical trial shows.

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