Δευτέρα, 16 Ιουνίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


Arctic warming linked to fewer European and US cold weather extremes, new study shows

Posted: 15 Jun 2014 11:38 AM PDT

Climate change is unlikely to lead to more days of extreme cold, similar to those that gripped the USA in a deep freeze last winter, new research has shown. The Arctic amplification phenomenon refers to the faster rate of warming in the Arctic compared to places further south. It is this phenomenon that has been linked to a spike in the number of severe cold spells experienced in recent years over Europe and North America.

Melting and refreezing of deep Greenland ice speeds flow to sea: Findings may shift understanding of ice sheet behavior

Posted: 15 Jun 2014 11:38 AM PDT

Researchers have found evidence of widespread refreezing of ice at the bottom of the Greenland Ice Sheet; some of these features coincide with faster flows. The newly revealed forms may help scientists understand more about how ice sheets behave and how they will respond to a warming climate.

Diabetes risk: Understanding the unique nature of children's bodies and brains

Posted: 15 Jun 2014 11:38 AM PDT

With the increase in childhood obesity and the associated increase in type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents, there is growing interest in how children's bodies process the foods they eat and how obesity and diabetes begin to develop at early ages.

The girl who couldn't stop laughing

Posted: 15 Jun 2014 11:36 AM PDT

A six-year-old Bolivian girl presented with an unusual medical symptom: uncontrollable and inappropriate fits of laughter. "She was considered spoiled, crazy, even devil-possessed," according to those who knew her. Then medical researchers discovered a hamartoma -- a small tumor pressing on the temporal lobe of her brain.

Exploring a parasitic tunnel boring machine: Parasitic worm genome and biology provides a solid basis for the development of new interventions

Posted: 15 Jun 2014 11:36 AM PDT

Researchers have deduced essential biological and genetic information from the genome sequence of the whipworm, an intestinal parasitic worm that infects hundreds of millions of people in developing countries. This information acts as the foundation for the development of new strategies and treatments against this debilitating parasite.

Patients with type 2 diabetes taking JANUVIA® (sitagliptin), metformin initiated insulin therapy at a slower rate compared to patients taking a sulfonylurea, metformin

Posted: 14 Jun 2014 12:03 PM PDT

A late-breaking observational study has been released that assessed the differences in time to initiation of insulin use and the proportion of the population initiating insulin among patients with type 2 diabetes taking the combination of JANUVIA® (sitagliptin) and metformin, and patients taking the combination of a sulfonylurea and metformin.

Patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing intensification of insulin therapy experienced less nighttime hypoglycemia while being treated with Januvia (Sitagliptin) compared to placebo

Posted: 14 Jun 2014 12:03 PM PDT

New post-hoc analysis shows patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing intensification of insulin therapy experienced less nighttime hypoglycemia while being treated with Januvia compared to placebo.

Gun violence and mental illness: Study addresses perception vs. reality

Posted: 13 Jun 2014 07:17 AM PDT

Gun violence in America can be reduced, concludes an international team of scholars who analyzed dozens of studies on gun violence and mental illness. The researchers found that mass murderers with mental health problems, while they receive a tremendous amount of media attention, are not typical of those who commit violent crimes, and the vast majority of those with serious mental illness do not engage in violent acts.

BRCA test results affect patients' breast cancer surgery plans

Posted: 13 Jun 2014 07:17 AM PDT

Seven in 10 women with breast cancer who learned before surgery they have BRCA gene mutations changed their surgical plan, often to a more extensive procedure that would reduce future cancer risk, researchers have found. The authors therefore recommend that women who meet genetic testing guidelines get the tests before surgery.

Movies with gory, disgusting scenes more likely to capture, engage audience

Posted: 12 Jun 2014 11:23 AM PDT

People exposed to core disgusts (blood, guts, body products) showed higher levels of attention the more disgusting the content grew, even though they had negative reactions to the content. The findings suggested that socio-moral disgust-eliciting content elicited a slower response, characterized by one of initial attention and increasing negativity and arousal, and was remembered better before, at and after the onset of disgust. Both core disgusts saw more of an immediate negativity and defensive response.

Opioid use prior to spine surgery linked to diminished patient reported outcomes

Posted: 12 Jun 2014 11:23 AM PDT

The use of opioid pain relievers (prescription medications, such as Percocet) have been linked to less improvement and higher levels of dissatisfaction following spine surgery, a study finds. "We have demonstrated that increasing amounts of preoperative opioid consumption may have a harmful effect on patient reported outcomes in those undergoing spinal surgery," said study's lead author.

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