Παρασκευή, 13 Ιουνίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News


Human language's deep origins appear to have come directly from birds, primates

Posted: 11 Jun 2014 07:22 AM PDT

Human language builds on birdsong and speech forms of other primates, researchers hypothesize in new research. From birds, the researchers say, we derived the melodic part of our language, and from other primates, the pragmatic, content-carrying parts of speech. Sometime within the last 100,000 years, those capacities fused into roughly the form of human language that we know today.

Map of universe questioned: Dwarf galaxies don't fit standard model

Posted: 11 Jun 2014 06:36 AM PDT

Dwarf galaxies that orbit the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies defy the accepted model of galaxy formation, and recent attempts to wedge them into the model are flawed, reports an international team of astrophysicists. A new study pokes holes in the current understanding of galaxy formation and questions the accepted model of the origin and evolution of the universe.

Charging portable electronics in 10 minutes: New architecture for lithium-ion battery anodes far outperform the current standard

Posted: 10 Jun 2014 11:47 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a three-dimensional, silicon-decorated, cone-shaped carbon-nanotube cluster architecture for lithium ion battery anodes that could enable charging of portable electronics in 10 minutes, instead of hours.

Inside the adult ADHD brain: Differences between adults who have recovered, and those who have not

Posted: 10 Jun 2014 08:28 AM PDT

Brain scans differentiate adults who have recovered from childhood ADHD and those whose difficulties linger, research shows. In the first study to compare patterns of brain activity in adults who recovered from childhood ADHD and those who did not, neuroscientists have discovered key differences in a brain communication network that is active when the brain is at wakeful rest and not focused on a particular task. The findings offer evidence of a biological basis for adult ADHD and should help to validate the criteria used to diagnose the disorder.

Human stem cells used to create light-sensitive retina in a dish

Posted: 10 Jun 2014 08:23 AM PDT

Using a type of human stem cell, researchers say they have created a three-dimensional complement of human retinal tissue in the laboratory, which notably includes functioning photoreceptor cells capable of responding to light, the first step in the process of converting it into visual images.

Vitamin D and the nursing mother

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 03:48 PM PDT

The not-often-discussed issue of Vitamin D deficiency in nursing mothers is discussed by an expert, and how it can affect the infants in their care. An "adequate" intake for nursing mothers is not the 400 IU/d the IOM recommends, but is instead in the range of 5,000-6,000 IU/d, taken daily. If they get that much, they will meet not only their own needs, but their infant's as well.

Ability to identify source of pain varies across body

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 06:16 AM PDT

'Where does it hurt?' is the first question asked to any person in pain. A new study defines for the first time how our ability to identify where it hurts, called 'spatial acuity,' varies across the body, being most sensitive at the forehead and fingertips. The findings have important implications for the assessment of both acute and chronic pain.

Optical invisibility cloak built for diffusive media (like fog or milk)

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 06:14 AM PDT

Real invisibility cloaks are rather complex and work in certain situations only. The laws of physics prevent an optical invisibility cloak from making objects in air invisible for any directions, colors, and polarizations. If the medium is changed, however, it becomes much easier to hide objects. Physicists have now succeeded in manufacturing with relatively simple means and testing an ideal invisibility cloak for diffusive light-scattering media, such as fog or milk.

Transplanted fetal stem cells for Parkinson's show promise

Posted: 05 Jun 2014 11:15 AM PDT

Fetal dopamine cells transplanted into the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease were able to remain healthy and functional for up to 14 years, a finding that could lead to new and better therapies for the illness, researchers report. The researchers looked at the brains of five patients who got fetal cell transplants over a period of 14 years and found that their dopamine transporters (DAT), proteins that pump the neurotransmitter dopamine, and mitochondria were still healthy at the time the patients died, in each case of causes other than Parkinson's.

Entitlement predicts sexism, in both men and women, study finds

Posted: 05 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

Entitled attitudes appear to be linked to sexism -- even among women, according to a personality study by psychologists. In general, entitled men are more likely to endorse hostile views of women and entitled women are more likely to endorse views of women as frail and needing extra care. The attitudes observed by men have been linked by past research as predictors of violence toward women. Conversely, the attitudes observed by women have been linked to reduction of advancement in education and jobs.

Complex neural circuitry keeps you from biting your tongue

Posted: 03 Jun 2014 01:21 PM PDT

Chewing requires a complex interplay in which the tongue pushes food into the teeth and then darts back to avoid being bitten. Researchers have used a sophisticated tracing technique to map the brain circuitry in mice that keeps mealtime relatively painless. The study could lend insight into a variety of human behaviors, from nighttime teeth grinding to smiling or complex vocalizations.

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