Δευτέρα, 16 Ιουνίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News


Arctic warming linked to fewer European and US cold weather extremes, new study shows

Posted: 15 Jun 2014 11:38 AM PDT

Climate change is unlikely to lead to more days of extreme cold, similar to those that gripped the USA in a deep freeze last winter, new research has shown. The Arctic amplification phenomenon refers to the faster rate of warming in the Arctic compared to places further south. It is this phenomenon that has been linked to a spike in the number of severe cold spells experienced in recent years over Europe and North America.

Melting and refreezing of deep Greenland ice speeds flow to sea: Findings may shift understanding of ice sheet behavior

Posted: 15 Jun 2014 11:38 AM PDT

Researchers have found evidence of widespread refreezing of ice at the bottom of the Greenland Ice Sheet; some of these features coincide with faster flows. The newly revealed forms may help scientists understand more about how ice sheets behave and how they will respond to a warming climate.

Exploring a parasitic tunnel boring machine: Parasitic worm genome and biology provides a solid basis for the development of new interventions

Posted: 15 Jun 2014 11:36 AM PDT

Researchers have deduced essential biological and genetic information from the genome sequence of the whipworm, an intestinal parasitic worm that infects hundreds of millions of people in developing countries. This information acts as the foundation for the development of new strategies and treatments against this debilitating parasite.

Weeding out pesky poison ivy with discovery of killer fungus

Posted: 12 Jun 2014 05:53 AM PDT

A natural and effective way to kill poison ivy using a naturally occurring fungus that grows on the fleshy tissue surrounding the plant's seed has been discovered, potentially giving homeowners and forest managers the ability to rid landscapes of the pernicious pest. The study is a first of its kind on a plant that affects millions but has had surprisingly little research done on it.

Guidelines needed for creating germ cells in vitro, scientists state

Posted: 11 Jun 2014 12:11 PM PDT

Research aimed at developing germ cells -- the progenitors of eggs and sperm -- in vitro should be held to especially rigorous scientific standards, a distinguished team of reproductive biologists declares. They state that because "germ cells are the ultimate stem cells," laboratories are racing to develop these cells in vitro for assisted reproduction.

Dad’s Environmental Exposure, Reproductive Success

Posted: 11 Jun 2014 12:11 PM PDT

A new study, among the first in humans, is underway to investigate whether phthalate (plastics) levels in expectant fathers have an effect on the couples' reproductive success, via epigenetic modifications of sperm DNA. Phthalates are detectable in nearly 100 percent of the U.S. population, and phthalate exposure, known to disrupt endocrines, is associated in human studies with changes in semen quality, androgen levels, birth outcomes and offspring neurodevelopment, but a mechanism has not been clearly identified.

New strategies to combat MRSA in hospitals

Posted: 11 Jun 2014 11:37 AM PDT

New guidelines aim to reduce the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), improve patient safety and prioritize current prevention efforts underway in hospitals. This drug resistant bacterium is a common source of patient morbidity and mortality in US hospitals, causing nearly twice the number of deaths, significantly longer hospital stays and higher hospital costs than other forms of the bacteria.

Deepwater Horizon crude oil impairs swimming performance of juvenile mahi-mahi

Posted: 11 Jun 2014 10:21 AM PDT

Up to a 37 percent decrease in overall swimming performance of Deepwater Horizon oil-exposed juvenile mahi-mahi has been recorded by researchers. The findings reveal the toxic effects of crude oil on ecologically and commercially valuable fish that reside in the northern Gulf of Mexico. "What our study shows is that even a relatively brief, low-level exposure to oil harms the swimming capabilities of mahi-mahi, and likely other large pelagic fish, during the early life stages," said the lead author of the study.

How protein blocks HIV life cycle in elite controllers

Posted: 11 Jun 2014 10:20 AM PDT

A research team has learned more about one way the immune systems of elite controllers – those rare individuals able to control HIV infection without drug treatment – block a key step in the virus's life cycle. They report finding that p21, a protein best known as a tumor suppressor, inhibits reverse transcription by blocking a human enzyme essential to the process.

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