Κυριακή, 8 Ιουνίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Evolution of a bimetallic nanocatalyst

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 10:14 AM PDT

Atomic-scale snapshots of a bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst in action have provided insights that could help improve the industrial process by which fuels and chemicals are synthesized from natural gas, coal or plant biomass.

Biologists pave the way for improved epilepsy treatments

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 09:04 AM PDT

Biologists leading an investigation into the cells that regulate proper brain function, have identified and located the key players whose actions contribute to afflictions such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. The discovery is a major step toward developing improved treatments for these and other neurological disorders.

Opening a wide window on the nano-world of surface catalysis

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 07:20 AM PDT

A surface catalyst with a built-in sensor: that's what chemists built by bridging a size gap on the nano-scale. Their silver nanoparticles combine plasmon resonance with catalytic activity, making SERS and other analytical data available in real time on a surface catalyst.

Shatterproof screens that save smartphones

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 07:20 AM PDT

Researchers have demonstrated how a transparent layer of electrodes on a polymer surface could be extraordinarily tough and flexible, withstanding repeated Scotch tape peeling and bending tests.

New species of ancient chirping giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar already threatened

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 07:20 AM PDT

An integrative inventory of chirping giant pill-millipede species in Madagascar revealed seven new species, many of them microendemics. These microendemics that can only be found in small forest fragments, less than a few hundred meters long and wide, are possibly threatened by rainforest destruction.

Magnetic moment of the proton measured with unprecedented precision

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 07:19 AM PDT

Physicists succeeded in the first direct high-precision measurement of a fundamental property of the proton. Results will contribute to a better understanding of the matter/antimatter asymmetry.

HIV transmission networks mapped to reduce infection rate

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 06:18 AM PDT

The transmission network of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been mapped in San Diego. The mapping of HIV infections, which used genetic sequencing, allowed researchers to predictively model the likelihood of new HIV transmissions and identify persons at greatest risk for transmitting the virus.

Infection in malaria-transmitting mosquito discovered

Posted: 06 Jun 2014 06:11 AM PDT

The first evidence of an intercellular bacterial infection in natural populations of two species of Anopheles mosquitoes, the major vectors of malaria in Africa, has been found by scientists. The infection, called Wolbachia, has been shown in labs to reduce the incidence of pathogen infections in mosquitoes and has the potential to be used in controlling malaria-transmitting mosquito populations.

For forests, an earlier spring than ever: climate change leads to increased growing season and allows forests to store more CO2

Posted: 05 Jun 2014 03:36 PM PDT

Over the last two decades, spurred by higher temperatures caused by climate change, scientists say, forests throughout the Eastern US have experienced earlier springs and later autumns than ever before. Over the last two decades, spurred by higher temperatures caused by climate change, scientists say forests throughout the Eastern U.S. have experienced earlier springs and later autumns than ever before.

Climate change: Termites, fungi play more important role in decomposition than temperature

Posted: 05 Jun 2014 03:36 PM PDT

Climate change models could have a thing or two to learn from termites and fungi, according to a new study. For a long time scientists have believed that temperature is the dominant factor in determining the rate of wood decomposition worldwide. Decomposition matters because the speed at which woody material are broken down strongly influences the retention of carbon in forest ecosystems and can help to offset the loss of carbon to the atmosphere from other sources. That makes the decomposition rate a key factor in detecting potential changes to the climate.

New evidence links air pollution to autism, schizophrenia

Posted: 05 Jun 2014 12:57 PM PDT

A new study describes how exposure to air pollution early in life produces harmful changes in the brains of mice, including an enlargement of part of the brain that is seen in humans who have autism and schizophrenia. The mice performed poorly in tests of short-term memory, learning ability, and impulsivity. Study authors say the findings are very suggestive that air pollution may play a role in autism, as well as in other neurodevelopmental disorders.

Brain circuit problem likely sets stage for the 'voices' that are symptom of schizophrenia

Posted: 05 Jun 2014 11:19 AM PDT

Scientists have identified problems in a connection between brain structures that may predispose individuals to hearing the 'voices' that are a common symptom of schizophrenia. Researchers linked the problem to a gene deletion. This leads to changes in brain chemistry that reduce the flow of information between two brain structures involved in processing auditory information.

On-off switch to burning stored fat found by scientists

Posted: 05 Jun 2014 11:19 AM PDT

Scientists' discovery of how white fat cells are converted to beige, and the on-off switch for the process, could lead to novel diabetes and obesity drugs. "Understanding how beigeing is controlled is so very important because if we can improve energy expenditure, we can reduce obesity," the lead author said.

A new model of liver regeneration: Switch causes mature liver cells to revert back to stem cell-like state

Posted: 05 Jun 2014 11:17 AM PDT

Scientists have new evidence in mice that it may be possible to repair a chronically diseased liver by forcing mature liver cells to revert back to a stem cell-like state. The researchers happened upon this discovery while investigating whether a biochemical cascade called Hippo, which controls how big the liver grows, also affects cell fate. The unexpected answer is that switching off the Hippo-signaling pathway in mature liver cells generates very high rates of dedifferentiation. This means the cells turn back the clock to become stem-cell like again, thus allowing them to give rise to functional progenitor cells that can regenerate a diseased liver.

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