Δευτέρα, 31 Μαρτίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

Meeting climate targets may require reducing meat, dairy consumption

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 04:37 PM PDT

Greenhouse gas emissions from food production may threaten the United Nations climate target of limiting global warming to two degrees Celsius, according to research. Carbon dioxide emissions from the energy and transportation sectors currently account for the largest share of climate pollution. However, a study from Chalmers now shows that eliminating these emissions would not guarantee staying below the UN limit. Emissions from agriculture threaten to keep increasing as global meat and dairy consumption increases.

Medication does not reduce risk of recurrent cardiac events among patients with diabetes

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:15 PM PDT

Use of the drug aleglitazar, which has shown the ability to lower glucose levels and have favorable effects on cholesterol, did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular death, heart attack or stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes and recent heart attack or unstable angina, according to a study.

Heart valve systems compared

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:15 PM PDT

Among patients undergoing aortic valve replacement using a catheter tube, a comparison of two types of heart valve technologies, balloon-expandable or self-expandable valve systems, found a greater rate of device success with the balloon-expandable valve, according to a study.

Why we miss subtle visual changes, and why it keeps us sane

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:15 PM PDT

Ever notice how Harry Potter's T-shirt abruptly changes from a crewneck to a henley shirt in 'The Order of the Phoenix,' or how in 'Pretty Woman,' Julia Roberts' croissant inexplicably morphs into a pancake? Don't worry if you missed those continuity bloopers. Vision scientists have discovered an upside to the brain mechanism that can blind us to subtle changes in movies and in the real world.

Secrets of a mollusk's unique bioceramic armor

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:15 PM PDT

The secrets behind a marine creature's defensive armor -- one that is exceptionally tough, yet optically clear -- have been revealed by scientists. The shells' unique properties emerge from a specialized nanostructure that allows optical clarity, as well as efficient energy dissipation and the ability to localize deformation, the researchers found.

Northern and southern hemisphere climates follow the beat of different drummers

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:13 PM PDT

Over the last 1000 years, temperature differences between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres were larger than previously thought. Using new data from the Southern Hemisphere, researchers have shown that climate model simulations overestimate the links between the climate variations across the Earth with implications for regional predictions.

Carbohydrate digestion and obesity strongly linked

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:13 PM PDT

New research indicates that obesity in the general population may be genetically linked to how our bodies digest carbohydrates. People usually have two copies of the gene AMY1, but in some regions of our DNA there can be variability in the number of copies a person carries, which is known as copy number variation. The number of copies of AMY1 can be highly variable between people, and it is believed that higher numbers of copies of the salivary amylase gene have evolved in response to a shift towards diets containing more starch since prehistoric times.

High blood pressure increases risk of stroke for atrial fibrillation patients

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:12 PM PDT

Poor blood pressure control among patients with atrial fibrillation is associated with a 50-percent increased risk of stroke, according to an analysis. The findings suggest that hypertension should be carefully monitored and controlled among patients with atrial fibrillation.

'Best practices' nutrition measurement for researchers

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:12 PM PDT

Scientists have developed what amounts to a best practices guide to the most accurate way of measuring fruit fly food consumption. "While our study isn't the final technical reference on measuring fly food consumption, it will help guide researchers to think more carefully about nutrition and nutrient intake in their own studies," said the study's leader.

Earth's dynamic interior: Multiple compositional components of Earth's deep mantle carried up to surface

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:12 PM PDT

Seeking to better understand the composition of the lowermost part of Earth's mantle, located nearly 2,900 kilometers (1,800 miles) below the surface, researchers have developed new simulations that depict the dynamics of deep Earth. These could be used to explain the complex geochemistry of lava from hotspots such as Hawaii.

Heat‐conducting polymer cools hot electronic devices at 200 degrees C

Posted: 30 Mar 2014 12:12 PM PDT

By harnessing an electropolymerization process to produce aligned arrays of polymer nanofibers, researchers have developed a thermal interface material able to conduct heat 20 times better than the original polymer. The material can operate at up to 200 degrees Celsius.

Commonly used intra-aortic balloon pump may have broader potential for heart patients

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

One of many uses for the intra-aortic balloon pump is helping ensure adequate oxygen and blood delivery to a heart struggling to resume beating in the aftermath of coronary bypass surgery. However, the most frequently used mechanical circulatory assist device in the world may have untapped potential, physicians say.

New approach to leukemia testing may better define prognosis, treatment

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

Nearly half of patients with the most common form of adult leukemia are said to have normal chromosomes but appear instead to have a distinct pattern of genetic abnormalities that could better define their prognosis and treatment, researchers report. In new work using microarray technology that probes millions of genes within chromosomes, researchers found the unique pattern in the leukemia cells of 22 patients diagnosed with cytogenetically normal acute myelogenous leukemia.

Analysis supports use of risk equations to guide statin therapy

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

In an analysis of almost 11,000 patients, an assessment of equations that help guide whether a patient should begin taking a statin (cholesterol lowering medication) found that observed and predicted five-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks were similar, suggesting that these equations are helpful for clinical decision making.

US, European cholesterol guidelines differ in statin use recommendations

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

Application of US and European cholesterol guidelines to a European population found that proportions of individuals eligible for statins differed substantially, with one US guideline recommending statins for nearly all men and two-thirds of women, proportions exceeding those of the other guidelines, according to a study.

Too many diet drinks may spell heart trouble for older women

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

It appears healthy postmenopausal women who drink two or more diet drinks a day may be more likely to have a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular problems, according to research. In fact, compared to women who never or only rarely consume diet drinks, those who consumed two or more a day were 30 percent more likely to suffer a cardiovascular event and 50 percent more likely to die from related disease.

Daylight saving impacts timing of heart attacks

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

Still feeling the residual effects of springing ahead for daylight saving time? The hour of sleep lost -- or gained -- may play a bigger, perhaps more dangerous role in our body's natural rhythm than we think. It seems moving the clock forward or backward may alter the timing of when heart attacks occur in the week following these time changes, according to research.

Astronauts' hearts become more spherical in space

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

New findings from a study of 12 astronauts show the heart becomes more spherical when exposed to long periods of microgravity in space, a change that could lead to cardiac problems, according to research. With implications for an eventual manned mission to Mars, the findings represent an important step toward understanding how a spaceflight of 18 months or more could affect astronauts' heart health.

Are statins good for your love life?

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

Statins are associated with a significant improvement in erectile function, a fact researchers hope will encourage men who need statins to reduce their risk of heart attack to take them, according to research. "The increase in erectile function scores with statins was approximately one-third to one-half of what has been reported with drugs like Viagra, Cialis or Levitra," said an author.

Celiac disease linked to increased risk of coronary artery disease

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:51 PM PDT

People with celiac disease may have a near two-fold increased risk of coronary artery disease compared with the general population, according to research. The study is the first to look at the association between celiac disease and coronary artery disease and adds to the evolving understanding of how systemic inflammation and autoimmune processes might influence cardiovascular disease development. Data also showed a slightly higher risk of stroke among people with celiac disease compared to controls.

Relaxed blood pressure guidelines cut millions from needing medication

Posted: 29 Mar 2014 02:50 PM PDT

New guidelines that ease the recommended blood pressure could result in 5.8 million U.S. adults no longer needing hypertension medication, according to an analysis. The findings are the first peer-reviewed analysis to quantify the impact of guidelines' change to relax the blood pressure goal in adults 60 years and older to 150/90, instead of the previous goal of 140/90.

Obesity prevention programs can lower kids' blood pressure, even if they don't reduce body fat

Posted: 28 Mar 2014 02:50 PM PDT

A systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of the effect of child obesity intervention programs on blood pressure has found that whether such programs prevented obesity or not, many of them reduced blood pressure in children. Even modest elevations in the BP of adolescents, according to recent research, can pose cardiovascular problems later in life.

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