Τρίτη, 25 Μαρτίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Life lessons: Children learn aggressive ways of thinking and behaving from violent video games

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 03:12 PM PDT

Children who repeatedly play violent video games are learning thought patterns that will stick with them and influence behaviors as they grow older, according to a new study.

Parallel programming may not be so daunting: 'Lock-free' parallel algorithms match performance with wait-free

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 12:40 PM PDT

Computer chips have stopped getting faster: The regular performance improvements we've come to expect are now the result of chipmakers' adding more cores, or processing units, to their chips, rather than increasing their clock speed.

Computer models solve geologic riddle millions of years in the making

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:33 AM PDT

An international team of scientists has used computer modeling to reveal, for the first time, how giant swirls form during the collision of tectonic plates -- with subduction zones stuttering and recovering after continental fragments slam into them.

State-of-the-state on genetic-based testing, treatment for breast cancer revealed

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:32 AM PDT

A review of the role that information gathered through genetic testing plays in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer has been conducted. The resulting paper discusses targeted therapies, new biomarkers, and the quality of commercially available testing methods.

Y-90 provides new, safe treatment for metastatic breast cancer

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:32 AM PDT

A minimally invasive treatment that delivers cancer-killing radiation directly to tumors shows promise in treating breast cancer that has spread to the liver when no other treatment options remain. The outpatient treatment, called yttrium-90 (Y-90) radioembolization, was safe and provided disease stabilization in 98.5 percent of the women's treated liver tumors in a recent study.

Prostate treatment lasts, preserves fertility

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:32 AM PDT

Shrinking the prostate without surgery can provide long-term relief to men with this common condition that causes annoying symptoms, such as frequent trips to the bathroom, suggests a study of nearly 500 men. According to research, 72 percent of men experienced symptom improvement three years after having a new, minimally invasive, image-guided treatment performed by interventional radiologists called prostate artery embolization.

No longer junk: Role of long noncoding RNAs in autism risk

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:31 AM PDT

RNA acts as the intermediary between genes and proteins, but the function of pieces of RNA that do not code for protein has, historically, been less clear. Researchers have ignored these noncoding RNAs until recently for not complying with the central dogma of biology -- that a straight line runs from gene to RNA (transcription) to protein (translation). However, noncoding RNAs are emerging as important regulators of diverse cellular processes with implications for numerous human disorders.

Light-activated antimicrobial surface that also works in the dark: World's first

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 09:14 AM PDT

A new antibacterial material that has potential for cutting hospital acquired infections has been developed by scientists. The combination of two simple dyes with nanoscopic particles of gold is deadly to bacteria when activated by light -- even under modest indoor lighting. And in a first for this type of substance, it also shows impressive antibacterial properties in total darkness.

Rising awareness may explain spike in Autism diagnoses

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 09:14 AM PDT

Young boys continue to have the highest rate of autism diagnoses, but Danish doctors are diagnosing more girls, teenagers and adults with the disorder than they did in the mid-1990s. Many studies look at the prevalence of autism, akin to taking a snapshot of the number of diagnoses in a given population. The new study instead examined the disorder's incidence, or newly reported diagnoses, each year.

Girls protected from autism, study suggests

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 09:14 AM PDT

It takes more mutations to trigger autism in women than in men, which may explain why men are four times more likely to have the disorder, according to a study. The findings bolster those from previous studies, but don't explain what confers protection against autism in women. The fact that autism is difficult to diagnose in girls may mean that studies enroll only those girls who are severely affected and who may therefore have the most mutations, researchers note.

From mouse ears to human's? Gene therapy to address progressive hearing loss

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:19 AM PDT

Using DNA as a drug -- commonly called gene therapy -- in laboratory mice may protect the inner ear nerve cells of humans suffering from certain types of progressive hearing loss, researchers have discovered. While the research is in its early stages, it has the potential to lead to a cure for some varieties of deafness.

Gene implicated in progression, relapse of deadly breast cancer finding points to potential Achilles' heel in triple negative breast cancer

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:19 AM PDT

A gene previously unassociated with breast cancer plays a pivotal role in the growth and progression of the triple negative form of the disease, a particularly deadly strain that often has few treatment options, scientists have found. Their research suggests that targeting the gene may be a new approach to treating the disease.

'RoboClam' replicates a clam's ability to burrow while using little energy

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:19 AM PDT

The Atlantic razor clam uses very little energy to burrow into undersea soil at high speed. Now a detailed insight into how the animal digs has led to the development of a robotic clam that can perform the same trick.

Population of neutrophils in body found by researchers

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:19 AM PDT

A novel population of neutrophils, which are the body's infection control workhorses, has been discovered by scientists. These cells have an enhanced microbial killing ability and are thereby better able to control infection. However, they may behave as a double-edged sword as they also have the potential to cause inflammation that results in tissue damage, and further studies are underway to regulate these activities.

New insight into improved wave energy testing

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:15 AM PDT

Pioneering research could provide a significant boost in the vital quest to harness wave power as a viable renewable energy source for the future. Researchers deployed wave measurement buoys and used wave modelling to show how variations in wave size and strength could be resolved.

Statins could ease coughing in lung disease patients, study finds

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:15 AM PDT

Common cholesterol-lowering drugs could provide relief to patients suffering from a chronic lung disease, a study has shown. The drugs -- known as statins -- were found to help alleviate the chronic coughing associated with the disease for some patients. Statins are commonly prescribed for people at risk of heart attack because they can reduce cholesterol levels, but scientists are increasingly finding that they also have anti-inflammatory effects.

Lots of carbon dioxide equivalents from aquatic environments

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:13 AM PDT

Large amounts of carbon dioxide equivalents taken up by plants on land are returned to the atmosphere from aquatic environments. The findings were that emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents (as methane and carbon dioxide) from lakes, running water, dams, ponds, and wells correspond to on an average 42% of the expected natural carbon sink in India. This carbon sink may therefore be smaller than expected, illustrating that we do not have full knowledge on the natural greenhouse gas balance.

Microfluidic device with artificial arteries measures drugs' influence on blood clotting

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:13 AM PDT

A new microfluidic method for evaluating drugs commonly used for preventing heart attacks has found that while aspirin can prevent dangerous blood clots in some at-risk patients, it may not be effective in all patients with narrowed arteries. The study, which involved 14 human subjects, used a device that simulated blood flowing through narrowed coronary arteries to assess effects of anti-clotting drugs.

Unconscious mind can detect a liar -- even when the conscious mind fails

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:45 AM PDT

When it comes to detecting deceit, your automatic associations may be more accurate than conscious thought in pegging truth-tellers and liars, according to research. The findings suggest that conscious awareness may hinder our ability to detect whether someone is lying, perhaps because we tend to seek out behaviors that are supposedly stereotypical of liars, like averted eyes or fidgeting. But those behaviors may not be all that indicative of an untrustworthy person.

Researchers grow carbon nanofibers using ambient air, without toxic ammonia

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:45 AM PDT

Materials science researchers have demonstrated that vertically aligned carbon nanofibers can be manufactured using ambient air, making the manufacturing process safer and less expensive. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers hold promise for use in gene-delivery tools, sensors, batteries and other technologies.

Mice give ticks a free lunch

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:45 AM PDT

Mice are effective at transferring disease-causing pathogens to feeding ticks. And, according to a new paper, these 'super hosts' appear indifferent to larval tick infestations. Drawing on 16 years of field research performed at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, the paper found that white-footed mice with hundreds of larval ticks survived just as long as those with only a few ticks. Even more surprising, male mice with large tick loads were more likely to survive during a given season.

New bodily illusion: Would you believe your hand could turn into marble?

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:44 AM PDT

Our bodies are made of flesh and bones. We all know this, and throughout our daily lives, all our senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? A new study reports a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating how we can rapidly update our assumptions about the material qualities of our bodies based on recent multisensory perceptual experience.

How developing sperm stick to the right path

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:43 AM PDT

The process of producing high-quality, fertile sperm requires many steps. Researchers show the transcription factor p73 promotes this process by regulating the adhesions between developing sperm and their support cells. The p53 family of transcription factors has an ancient and well-conserved function in protecting reproductive cells.

Tumor suppressor p53 cuts off invading cancer cells

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:43 AM PDT

The tumor suppressor p53 does all it can to prevent oncogenes from transforming normal cells into tumor cells. Sometimes oncogenes manage to initiate tumor development in the presence of p53, which focuses its efforts instead on limiting the tumor's ability to invade and metastasize. Researchers uncover one way that p53 acts to prevent cancer cell invasion.

Nasal spray delivers new type of depression treatment

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:04 AM PDT

A nasal spray that delivers a peptide to treat depression holds promise as a potential alternative therapeutic approach, research shows. This peptide treatment interferes with the binding of two dopamine receptors -- the D1 and D2 receptor complex. The research team had found that this binding was higher in the brains of people with major depression. Disrupting the binding led to the anti-depressant effects.

Tackling multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant TB: New consensus reached

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:03 AM PDT

New consensus statements have been developed to help tackle the growing threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). The statements mark the first time that physicians who treat patients with multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB have reached a consensus on important areas of patient management where scientific evidence is inconclusive.

Biased sex ratios predict more promiscuity, polygamy and 'divorce' in birds

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:03 AM PDT

More birds break pair bonds or 'divorce' in populations where there are more females, according to new research. Researchers also found that short-term infidelity increases in male-dominated environments. The research has some striking parallels in human societies.

Climate change will improve survival rates of British bird -- the long-tailed tit

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:03 AM PDT

Climate change may be bad news for billions, but scientists have discovered one unlikely winner -- a tiny British bird, the long-tailed tit. Like other small animals that live for only two or three years, these birds had until now been thought to die in large numbers during cold winters. But new research suggests that warm weather during spring instead holds the key to their survival.

Faster genetic testing method will likely transform care for many patients with breast cancer

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:03 AM PDT

Faster and cheaper DNA sequencing techniques will likely improve care for patients with breast cancer but also create challenges for clinicians as they counsel patients on their treatment options. Those are among the conclusions of a new study. The findings provide insights into how genetic advances will soon be affecting patient care.

Unfolded proteins collapse when exposed to heat, crowded environments

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:02 AM PDT

Not only folded proteins fulfill important functions in the human body; unfolded or intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) likewise assume major tasks. Researchers have observed how molecular forces influence protein structure. The unfolded proteins become smaller when exposed to elevated temperatures and density stress.

Mother-of-pearl inspires super-strong material

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:02 AM PDT

Whether traditional or derived from high technology, ceramics all have the same flaw: they are fragile. Yet this characteristic may soon be a thing of the past: a team of researchers has recently presented a new ceramic material inspired by mother-of-pearl from the small single-shelled marine mollusk abalone.

DNA from fossils reveal origin of Norwegian lemmings

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:02 AM PDT

A new ancient DNA study shows that the Norwegian lemming has a unique history. In contrast to other mammals in Fennoscandia, the Norwegian lemming may have survived the last Ice Age in the far north, sealed off from the rest of the world by gigantic ice sheets.

Scientists discover material that can be solar cell by day, light panel by night

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:02 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a next-generation solar cell material which can also emit light, in addition to converting light to electricity. This solar cell is developed from Perovskite, a promising material that could hold the key to creating high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells. The new cells not only glow when electricity passes through them, but they can also be customised to emit different colors.

Genetic cause of rare type of ovarian cancer discovered

Posted: 23 Mar 2014 12:21 PM PDT

The cause of a rare type of ovarian cancer that most often strikes girls and young women has been uncovered by an international research team, according to a study. The findings revealed a 'genetic superhighway' mutation in a gene found in the overwhelming majority of patients with small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type, or SCCOHT.

Bariatric surgery decreases risk of uterine cancer, study shows

Posted: 22 Mar 2014 06:15 AM PDT

Bariatric surgery resulting in dramatic weight loss in formerly severely obese women reduces the risk of endometrial (uterine) cancer by 71 percent and as much as 81 percent if normal weight is maintained after surgery, research has revealed. the findings indicate obesity may be a modifiable risk factor for endometrial cancer, and bariatric surgery a viable option for eligible patients.

Cold short-cut to carbon dioxide storage

Posted: 21 Mar 2014 08:21 AM PDT

Could refrigeration technology -- against all the odds -- kick-start carbon dioxide storage in the North Sea? All over the world, scientists are on the hunt for solutions that will allow carbon dioxide to be captured from large power stations and industrial plants. Many of the methods in use today employ chemicals or advanced materials to extract carbon dioxide from flue gases. But now, a chilly alternative is showing signs of heating up. When carbon dioxide-rich gases are compressed and refrigerated, the carbon dioxide turns into a liquid -- like steam on a cold bathroom mirror -- and can be drawn off.

What keeps tumor cells in place: Switches found that cancer cells use to migrate

Posted: 21 Mar 2014 08:21 AM PDT

Switches that colorectal cancer cells use to migrate away from the primary tumor site and to invade neighboring tissue have been found by researchers. This migration is the first step in metastasis, the process by which the cancer forms secondary tumors in other organs. The researchers hope to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for colorectal cancer on the basis of the newly discovered signaling events.

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