Τρίτη, 25 Μαρτίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Life lessons: Children learn aggressive ways of thinking and behaving from violent video games

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 03:12 PM PDT

Children who repeatedly play violent video games are learning thought patterns that will stick with them and influence behaviors as they grow older, according to a new study.

State-of-the-state on genetic-based testing, treatment for breast cancer revealed

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:32 AM PDT

A review of the role that information gathered through genetic testing plays in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer has been conducted. The resulting paper discusses targeted therapies, new biomarkers, and the quality of commercially available testing methods.

Y-90 provides new, safe treatment for metastatic breast cancer

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:32 AM PDT

A minimally invasive treatment that delivers cancer-killing radiation directly to tumors shows promise in treating breast cancer that has spread to the liver when no other treatment options remain. The outpatient treatment, called yttrium-90 (Y-90) radioembolization, was safe and provided disease stabilization in 98.5 percent of the women's treated liver tumors in a recent study.

Keep calm and don your video glasses: Television shows keep patients calm during medical treatment

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:32 AM PDT

Music may soothe the soul, but it takes video to calm a patient undergoing medical treatment, notes a study in which individuals watched television shows or movies through special video glasses while having a biopsy or other minimally invasive treatment. "Patients told us the video glasses really helped calm them down and took their mind off the treatment, and we now offer video glasses to help distract patients from medical treatment going on mere inches away," said a researcher. "It is really comforting for patients, especially the ones who tend to be more nervous," he said.

New implant shows promise for painful osteoporotic spine fractures

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:32 AM PDT

Individuals suffering from spinal fractures -- caused by osteoporosis or weakened bones -- now have another option to reduce pain, restore function and improve quality of life, according to a study of 300 patients treated with a new type of vertebral augmentation. Results of a randomized, controlled multicenter trial on a new implant treatment for vertebral compression fractures are now being reported for the first time.

Prostate treatment lasts, preserves fertility

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:32 AM PDT

Shrinking the prostate without surgery can provide long-term relief to men with this common condition that causes annoying symptoms, such as frequent trips to the bathroom, suggests a study of nearly 500 men. According to research, 72 percent of men experienced symptom improvement three years after having a new, minimally invasive, image-guided treatment performed by interventional radiologists called prostate artery embolization.

No longer junk: Role of long noncoding RNAs in autism risk

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 10:31 AM PDT

RNA acts as the intermediary between genes and proteins, but the function of pieces of RNA that do not code for protein has, historically, been less clear. Researchers have ignored these noncoding RNAs until recently for not complying with the central dogma of biology -- that a straight line runs from gene to RNA (transcription) to protein (translation). However, noncoding RNAs are emerging as important regulators of diverse cellular processes with implications for numerous human disorders.

Light-activated antimicrobial surface that also works in the dark: World's first

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 09:14 AM PDT

A new antibacterial material that has potential for cutting hospital acquired infections has been developed by scientists. The combination of two simple dyes with nanoscopic particles of gold is deadly to bacteria when activated by light -- even under modest indoor lighting. And in a first for this type of substance, it also shows impressive antibacterial properties in total darkness.

Rising awareness may explain spike in Autism diagnoses

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 09:14 AM PDT

Young boys continue to have the highest rate of autism diagnoses, but Danish doctors are diagnosing more girls, teenagers and adults with the disorder than they did in the mid-1990s. Many studies look at the prevalence of autism, akin to taking a snapshot of the number of diagnoses in a given population. The new study instead examined the disorder's incidence, or newly reported diagnoses, each year.

Girls protected from autism, study suggests

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 09:14 AM PDT

It takes more mutations to trigger autism in women than in men, which may explain why men are four times more likely to have the disorder, according to a study. The findings bolster those from previous studies, but don't explain what confers protection against autism in women. The fact that autism is difficult to diagnose in girls may mean that studies enroll only those girls who are severely affected and who may therefore have the most mutations, researchers note.

Fast and reliable: New mechanism for speedy transmission in basket cells discovered

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:19 AM PDT

A new subcellular mechanism for reliable, fast transmission in the so-called basket cells of the brain has been discovered by researchers. Basket cells play a key role in information processing in neuronal networks in the hippocampus. To fulfill their function, signal transmission has to be both fast and reliable: basket cells convert an incoming excitatory signal into an outgoing inhibitory signal within up to a millisecond, and this output signal needs to be distributed to a large number of target cells.

From mouse ears to human's? Gene therapy to address progressive hearing loss

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:19 AM PDT

Using DNA as a drug -- commonly called gene therapy -- in laboratory mice may protect the inner ear nerve cells of humans suffering from certain types of progressive hearing loss, researchers have discovered. While the research is in its early stages, it has the potential to lead to a cure for some varieties of deafness.

Gene implicated in progression, relapse of deadly breast cancer finding points to potential Achilles' heel in triple negative breast cancer

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:19 AM PDT

A gene previously unassociated with breast cancer plays a pivotal role in the growth and progression of the triple negative form of the disease, a particularly deadly strain that often has few treatment options, scientists have found. Their research suggests that targeting the gene may be a new approach to treating the disease.

Population of neutrophils in body found by researchers

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:19 AM PDT

A novel population of neutrophils, which are the body's infection control workhorses, has been discovered by scientists. These cells have an enhanced microbial killing ability and are thereby better able to control infection. However, they may behave as a double-edged sword as they also have the potential to cause inflammation that results in tissue damage, and further studies are underway to regulate these activities.

Statins could ease coughing in lung disease patients, study finds

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:15 AM PDT

Common cholesterol-lowering drugs could provide relief to patients suffering from a chronic lung disease, a study has shown. The drugs -- known as statins -- were found to help alleviate the chronic coughing associated with the disease for some patients. Statins are commonly prescribed for people at risk of heart attack because they can reduce cholesterol levels, but scientists are increasingly finding that they also have anti-inflammatory effects.

Hot nanoparticles for cancer treatments

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:13 AM PDT

Nanoparticles have a great deal of potential in medicine: for diagnostics, as a vehicle for active substances or a tool to kill off tumors using heat. Researchers have now developed particles that are relatively easy to produce and have a wide range of applications.

Microfluidic device with artificial arteries measures drugs' influence on blood clotting

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 08:13 AM PDT

A new microfluidic method for evaluating drugs commonly used for preventing heart attacks has found that while aspirin can prevent dangerous blood clots in some at-risk patients, it may not be effective in all patients with narrowed arteries. The study, which involved 14 human subjects, used a device that simulated blood flowing through narrowed coronary arteries to assess effects of anti-clotting drugs.

Leaders wired to be task-focused or team-builders, but can be both

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:45 AM PDT

Academics have written about distinctions between a task-oriented leader and a social-emotional leader for 50 years. But new research strongly suggests the distinction has a foundation in our brains -- which allows us to be either analytical or empathetic, but not both at the same time -- researchers report. Managers don't have to be one or the other, they say. The presence of both capabilities in a normal brain suggests the opposite is true.

Unconscious mind can detect a liar -- even when the conscious mind fails

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:45 AM PDT

When it comes to detecting deceit, your automatic associations may be more accurate than conscious thought in pegging truth-tellers and liars, according to research. The findings suggest that conscious awareness may hinder our ability to detect whether someone is lying, perhaps because we tend to seek out behaviors that are supposedly stereotypical of liars, like averted eyes or fidgeting. But those behaviors may not be all that indicative of an untrustworthy person.

Fair bosses pay the price of burnout

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:45 AM PDT

Bosses who are fair make their workers happier and their companies more productive, but in the end may be burning themselves out. The study found that the act of carefully monitoring the fairness of workplace decisions wears down supervisors mentally and emotionally. "Managers who are mentally fatigued are more prone to making mistakes and it is more difficult for them to control deviant or counterproductive impulses," the lead author said.

A towel less: How psychologists harness sociability to cut waste

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:44 AM PDT

Hotel guests can be gently persuaded to reduce the number of towels they use each day, psychology researchers have found. With fewer towels to wash, this reduces the waste of water, energy and detergent. This is good news for the environment and it cuts costs, so enabling hotels to reduce prices.

New bodily illusion: Would you believe your hand could turn into marble?

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:44 AM PDT

Our bodies are made of flesh and bones. We all know this, and throughout our daily lives, all our senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? A new study reports a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating how we can rapidly update our assumptions about the material qualities of our bodies based on recent multisensory perceptual experience.

Detecting tumor markers easily

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:44 AM PDT

Blood is just teeming with proteins. However, it's not easy to identify specialized tumor markers indicating the presence of cancer. A new method now enables diagnostics to be carried out in a single step, using a blood test. Tumor markers in the blood help determine whether the patient is afflicted with a malign tumor and whether it is excreting markers more vigorously -- involving highly specific proteins. An increased concentration in the blood provides one indication of the disease for physicians.

How developing sperm stick to the right path

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:43 AM PDT

The process of producing high-quality, fertile sperm requires many steps. Researchers show the transcription factor p73 promotes this process by regulating the adhesions between developing sperm and their support cells. The p53 family of transcription factors has an ancient and well-conserved function in protecting reproductive cells.

Tumor suppressor p53 cuts off invading cancer cells

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 07:43 AM PDT

The tumor suppressor p53 does all it can to prevent oncogenes from transforming normal cells into tumor cells. Sometimes oncogenes manage to initiate tumor development in the presence of p53, which focuses its efforts instead on limiting the tumor's ability to invade and metastasize. Researchers uncover one way that p53 acts to prevent cancer cell invasion.

Nasal spray delivers new type of depression treatment

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:04 AM PDT

A nasal spray that delivers a peptide to treat depression holds promise as a potential alternative therapeutic approach, research shows. This peptide treatment interferes with the binding of two dopamine receptors -- the D1 and D2 receptor complex. The research team had found that this binding was higher in the brains of people with major depression. Disrupting the binding led to the anti-depressant effects.

When mothers are active so are their children -- but many mothers are not

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:04 AM PDT

A study of physical activity patterns of women and their four-year-olds reveals a strong association between the two. It also shows that only 53 percent of mothers achieved the recommended guideline for moderate-to-vigorous activity. Taken together, these results provide valuable pointers for policy makers.

Tackling multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant TB: New consensus reached

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:03 AM PDT

New consensus statements have been developed to help tackle the growing threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). The statements mark the first time that physicians who treat patients with multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB have reached a consensus on important areas of patient management where scientific evidence is inconclusive.

Biased sex ratios predict more promiscuity, polygamy and 'divorce' in birds

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:03 AM PDT

More birds break pair bonds or 'divorce' in populations where there are more females, according to new research. Researchers also found that short-term infidelity increases in male-dominated environments. The research has some striking parallels in human societies.

Faster genetic testing method will likely transform care for many patients with breast cancer

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:03 AM PDT

Faster and cheaper DNA sequencing techniques will likely improve care for patients with breast cancer but also create challenges for clinicians as they counsel patients on their treatment options. Those are among the conclusions of a new study. The findings provide insights into how genetic advances will soon be affecting patient care.

Women with gynecologic cancers may live longer when treated at high-volume medical centers

Posted: 24 Mar 2014 06:01 AM PDT

Women with ovarian and other gynecologic cancers live significantly longer when they receive care at hospitals that treat a large number of patients with these conditions, according to research on more than 850,000 women. Women with cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal and vulvar cancer who were cared for at high-volume centers lived about a year longer than those cared for at low-volume centers, the study found. The number of women treated at high-volume centers steadily increased during the course of the 13-year study.

Genetic cause of rare type of ovarian cancer discovered

Posted: 23 Mar 2014 12:21 PM PDT

The cause of a rare type of ovarian cancer that most often strikes girls and young women has been uncovered by an international research team, according to a study. The findings revealed a 'genetic superhighway' mutation in a gene found in the overwhelming majority of patients with small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type, or SCCOHT.

Bariatric surgery decreases risk of uterine cancer, study shows

Posted: 22 Mar 2014 06:15 AM PDT

Bariatric surgery resulting in dramatic weight loss in formerly severely obese women reduces the risk of endometrial (uterine) cancer by 71 percent and as much as 81 percent if normal weight is maintained after surgery, research has revealed. the findings indicate obesity may be a modifiable risk factor for endometrial cancer, and bariatric surgery a viable option for eligible patients.

What keeps tumor cells in place: Switches found that cancer cells use to migrate

Posted: 21 Mar 2014 08:21 AM PDT

Switches that colorectal cancer cells use to migrate away from the primary tumor site and to invade neighboring tissue have been found by researchers. This migration is the first step in metastasis, the process by which the cancer forms secondary tumors in other organs. The researchers hope to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for colorectal cancer on the basis of the newly discovered signaling events.

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