Σάββατο, 5 Ιουλίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

Power-napping helps late-born dormice prepare for winter

Posted: 04 Jul 2014 10:48 AM PDT

For hibernating mammals, the pre-winter months are a race against time to accumulate enough energy reserves to last until spring. Offspring born late in the year have much less time to achieve this. Scientists have discovered that power-napping can help late-born dormice overcome these unfavourable odds.

New archaeological find could shed light on late-Roman Britain

Posted: 04 Jul 2014 10:47 AM PDT

A unique archaeological find uncovered near the site of a Roman villa in Dorset could help to shed light on the rural elite of late-Roman Britain. The skeletal remains are thought to be unique as they are buried near the site of a Roman villa, making it likely that the five skeletons belonged to the owners and occupants of the villa -- the first time in Britain that the graves of villa owners have been found in such close proximity to the villa itself.

Who is responsible for climate change?

Posted: 04 Jul 2014 10:47 AM PDT

Calculating the cumulative cost of carbon dioxide emissions gives new insights into the question of who is responsible for climate change. One of the major reasons for the failure of the 2009 Climate Convention Conference in Copenhagen was the issue of carbon debt. Developed countries called for emission reductions in developing countries, while the latter use the former's historical emissions, their carbon debt, as a reason for inaction. A new article suggests how to finally settle this question of historical responsibility.

The road to sustainable tuna aquaculture

Posted: 04 Jul 2014 10:46 AM PDT

Domesticating Atlantic Bluefin Tuna may help meet the food industry's demand for this endangered species. However, making such an endeavour sustainable is a challenging task.

High Energy Stereoscopic System detects its first pulsar

Posted: 04 Jul 2014 10:46 AM PDT

The High Energy Stereoscopic System telescope in Namibia has detected gamma rays of only 30 Giga electron volts (GeV) from the Vela pulsar. This is the first pulsar to be detected by HESS and the second - after Crab in 2011- to be spotted by ground-based gamma ray telescopes.

Forecasting the development of breakthrough technologies to enable novel space missions

Posted: 04 Jul 2014 10:46 AM PDT

A new report, Technological Breakthroughs for Scientific Progress, has been published today by the European Science Foundation. The five Overwhelming Drivers identified in this exercise are to reduce mass, maintain stiffness; Build a spacecraft and missions that can last 50 years; Deploy a 30m+ telescope into space; Enable humans to stay in space for more than 2 years; Autonomous geophysical survey of planets.

Payback time for soil carbon from pasture conversion to sugarcane production

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 01:23 PM PDT

The reduction of soil carbon stock caused by the conversion of pasture areas into sugarcane plantations may be offset within two or three years of cultivation. Researchers report that soil from pasture areas has a carbon stock whose volume varies only slightly over the years. However, the process of preparing this type of soil for conversion to sugarcane plantations causes part of the carbon stock to be emitted into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2).

Gene discovered that activates stem cells for organ regeneration in Planarians

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 11:23 AM PDT

Researchers announced the discovery of a gene zic-1 that enables stem cells to regrow a head after decapitation in flatworm planarians. Many species across the animal kingdom have the ability to regenerate, but the mechanisms that connect injuries to stem cell activation and the production of new tissues are not fully understood.

Host genetics can contribute to lung damage in severe tuberculosis

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 11:23 AM PDT

A third of the global population is infected with the bacterial pathogen that causes tuberculosis. Most carriers control the infection and are asymptomatic, but severe forms of the disease kill over a million people every year. A new article now identifies a factor made by the host that exacerbates lung damage in severe TB. The results also suggest why gene mutations that render the factor inactive are common.

Women veterans want options, follow up support when dealing with intimate partner violence

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 09:58 AM PDT

Intimate partner violence is a significant health issue faced by women veterans, but little has been known up until now about their preferences for IPV-related care. A new study has found that most of these women support routine screening for IPV and want options, follow-up support, transparent documentation and Veterans Health Administration and community resources.

Genetic link to autism found, known as CHD8 mutation

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 09:58 AM PDT

In a collaboration involving 13 institutions around the world, researchers have broken new ground in understanding what causes autism. This is the first time researchers have shown a definitive cause of autism to a genetic mutation. Previously identified genetic events like Fragile X, which account for a greater number of autism cases, are associated with other impairments, such as intellectual disability, more than autism.

How beryllium causes deadly lung disease

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 09:55 AM PDT

Using exquisitely detailed maps of molecular shapes and the electrical charges surrounding them, researchers have discovered how the metal beryllium triggers a deadly immune response in the lungs. They show how a genetic susceptibility to the disease creates a molecular pocket, which captures beryllium ions and triggers an inflammatory response in the lungs.

Biological signal processing: Body cells -- instrumentalists in a symphony orchestra

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 08:28 AM PDT

Every organism has one aim: to survive. Its body cells all work in concert to keep it alive. They do so through finely tuned means of communication. Scientists have now successfully revealed for the first time the laws by which cells translate signals from their surroundings into internal signals.

No two lark sparrows are alike (at least when it comes to migration habits)

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 08:28 AM PDT

A new study conducted by researchers who used geolocators to track birds migration journey, shows that migration flyways and winter destinations of sparrows are unique to each bird.

Movement disorders in young people related to ADHD

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 07:26 AM PDT

Researchers have identified a particular genetic mutation that may cause Parkinsonism in young people. The mutation interferes with the brain's transport of the important signal substance dopamine and may also plays a role in mental diseases, e.g. ADHD.

Biological basis for magic mushroom 'mind expansion' discovered

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 07:26 AM PDT

New research shows that our brain displays a similar pattern of activity during dreams as it does during a mind-expanding drug trip. The study found that under psilocybin, activity in the more primitive brain network linked to emotional thinking became more pronounced, with several different areas in this network -- such as the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex -- active at the same time. This pattern of activity is similar to the pattern observed in people who are dreaming.

Artificial cilia: Scientists develop nano-structured transportation system

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 07:26 AM PDT

Cilia, or ciliated epithelia, cover our respiratory tract like a lawn. In our pharynx and nasal mucosa they are responsible for continuously transporting mucus and particles embedded therein towards our throat. (except for heavy smokers, whose cilia where destroyed by nicotine and tar.) Scientists have now come one step closer to their aim of artificially reproducing this biological transport system with switchable molecules.

Do not disturb! How the brain filters out distractions

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 07:26 AM PDT

You know the feeling? You are trying to dial a phone number from memory ... you have to concentrate ... then someone starts shouting out other numbers nearby. In a situation like that, your brain must ignore the distraction as best it can so as not to lose vital information from its working memory.Scientists can now give us some insight into just how the brain manages this problem.

New social media study investigates relationships among Facebook use, narcissism and empathy

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 07:25 AM PDT

A new study investigated the relationship among adult Facebook users and found that some Facebook features are linked to selfishness and some Facebook activities may encourage empathy.

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