Τρίτη, 1 Ιουλίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act catalyses unprecedented collaboration between health care, public health

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 04:34 PM PDT

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, signed into law by US President Barack Obama in 2010, can advance public health in the USA by supporting increased emphasis on prevention, and reversing the historic division between public health and private health care services, according to the authors of new research.

Dramatic slowdown in growth of US health expenditure over last decade closes gap between USA, other high-spending countries

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 04:34 PM PDT

Growth in health expenditure in the USA slowed dramatically between 2000 and 2011, bringing the growth rate of the country's health budget in line with other high-spending countries, according to new research. OECD warns that "more and bigger" efforts will be needed to contain US health budget to prevent reversal of recent slowdown in health spending growth as economic growth improves

ACP recommends against pelvic exam in asymptomatic, average risk, non-pregnant women

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 04:34 PM PDT

ACP's new evidence-based guideline finds that harms of screening pelvic examination outweigh any demonstrated benefits. ACP's guideline is based on a systematic review of the published literature on human subjects in the English language from 1946 through January 2014.

Using geometry, researchers coax human embryonic stem cells to organize themselves

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 01:45 PM PDT

By confining colonies of human embryonic stem cells to tiny circular patterns on glass plates, researchers have for the first time coaxed them into organizing themselves just as they would under natural conditions.

Body odor reveals malarial infection

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 01:40 PM PDT

An infection with malaria pathogens changes the scent of infected mice, making those infected more attractive to mosquitoes, according to a new study. Researchers show that whether mosquitoes find the right victim to bite is not left to chance by the pathogen. Instead, the plasmodium parasite appears to manipulate its host by changing the characteristics of the infected individual's body odour, which makes the carrier more attractive to hungry mosquitoes.

Evolution of life’s operating system revealed in detail

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 01:40 PM PDT

The evolution of the ribosome, a large molecular structure found in the cells of all species, has been revealed in unprecedented detail in a new study.

Surgical treatment for metastatic melanoma of the liver increases overall survival

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 11:14 AM PDT

Surgical resection markedly improves survival among metastatic melanoma patients whose disease is isolated to a few areas in the liver, according to a new study. The bottom line, according the researchers, is that surgeons should discuss surgical resection for the treatment of melanoma liver metastases with their patients if their disease is limited to a few areas in the liver, their overall health status is good, and the disease is indolent or the patients are responding to systemic therapy.

In human evolution, changes in skin's barrier set northern Europeans apart

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 11:08 AM PDT

The popular idea that northern Europeans developed light skin to absorb more UV light so they could make more vitamin D -- vital for healthy bones and immune function -- is questioned by researchers in a new study. Ramping up the skin's capacity to capture UV light to make vitamin D is indeed important, however, researchers concluded in their study that changes in the skin's function as a barrier to the elements made a greater contribution than alterations in skin pigment in the ability of northern Europeans to make vitamin D.

Are you seen as a jerk at work? Many people are oblivious to how they come across to counterparts and colleagues

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 09:48 AM PDT

New research shows that many people seen by others as under-assertive or over-assertive think they're appropriately assertive. The study also reveals that people seen as getting assertiveness right often mistakenly think they've gotten it wrong.

Combatting drug resistance for melanoma patients

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 09:44 AM PDT

A new way to identify possible therapeutic targets for patients with drug resistant melanoma has been developed by researchers. It involves using liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry to measure biomarkers or molecules in blood and tissue that indicates cancer is present. These measurements can help researchers determine if a patient is responding to treatment.

New study from population and development review finds flaws in mortality projections

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 09:44 AM PDT

Demographers have found that mortality projections from most low-mortality countries are more pessimistic than they should be. Existing projections fail to recognize that fewer people smoke today than used to. As a result, there will be a future decline in smoking-related mortality. This suggests that with more people living longer, pension and health care costs in coming decades will likely be higher than previously estimated.

Potential drug target for PTSD prevention

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 09:44 AM PDT

A drug that appears to make memories of fearsome events less durable in mice has been discovered by researchers. The finding may accelerate the development of treatments for preventing PTSD. The drug, called osanetant, targets a distinct group of brain cells in a region of the brain that controls the formation and consolidation of fear memories.

Key component of cell division comes to light

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 09:44 AM PDT

The in vivo visualization and monitoring of the starting points of microtubules -- filaments responsible for organizing the mitotic spindle -- provides novel insight into the dynamic architecture of this structure. The findings will also contribute to understanding how the mitotic spindle is perturbed by drugs that target microtubules and that are used in chemotherapy.

Artificial enzyme mimics natural detoxification mechanism in liver cells

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 08:41 AM PDT

Molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles oxidize sulfite to sulfate in liver cells in analogy to the enzyme sulfite oxidase, researchers have found. The functionalized Molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles can cross the cellular membrane and accumulate at the mitochondria, where they can recover the activity of sulfite oxidase.

Progress in fight against tuberculosis

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 08:41 AM PDT

Leading immunologists express confidence that clear advances in the fight against tuberculosis are within reach. "The old BCG vaccine against tuberculosis primarily activates only helper cells. The trick with our new vaccine is to additionally activate the killer cells, which enables us to trigger an improved immune system response," one expert says. In addition to research into vaccines, innovative treatments are also being investigated which attempt to entice the bacteria out of their macrophage hiding places.

Cellular team players: enzymes work with co-trainer, scientists show

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 08:41 AM PDT

Many enzymes work only with a co-trainer, of sorts. Scientists show what this kind of cooperation looks like in detail using a novel methodology applied to the heat shock protein Hsp90.

Breathe easy and don't scratch this Fourth of July

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 08:34 AM PDT

Activities surrounding the 4th of July can create health hazards for those who suffer from allergies and asthma. Smoke from fireworks can make it hard for those with asthma to breathe, and certain fresh fruits and vegetables can create an allergy-like reaction for people with hay fever.

Doctors urge caution with Fourth of July fireworks

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 08:34 AM PDT

Nothing says "Fourth of July" like fireworks, but doctors at Vanderbilt University Medical Center urge caution with consumer fireworks and suggest leaving these displays to the experts. Vanderbilt doctors annually treat burns and eye injuries and even see patients with hearing loss due to fireworks usage.

Cocaine addiction: Phase-specific biology, treatment?

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 07:31 AM PDT

Current pharmacotherapies for addiction follow the dictum 'one size fits all'. Medications are prescribed in the same way for all patients, regardless of whether they have just started experimenting with a drug or have an established drug habit. Even more troubling, there are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for some addictions, such as compulsive cocaine use.

A first: Scientists show bacteria can evolve biological timer to survive antibiotics

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 07:31 AM PDT

When exposed to repeated cycles of antibiotics, within days bacteria can evolve a new adaptation, by remaining dormant for the treatment period to survive antibiotic stress. The results show for the first time that bacteria can develop a biological timer to survive antibiotic exposure. With this new understanding, scientists could develop new approaches for slowing the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

Bio-printing transplantable tissues, organs: Another step closer

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 07:31 AM PDT

Researchers have made a giant leap towards the goal of 'bio-printing' transplantable tissues and organs for people affected by major diseases and trauma injuries, a new study reports. Scientists have bio-printed artificial vascular networks mimicking the body's circulatory system that are necessary for growing large complex tissues.

Missing protein explains link between obesity, diabetes

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:48 AM PDT

Obese individuals lack a protein that is essential for regulating blood glucose levels, causing them to face higher risks of developing diabetes, researchers have discovered. The protein is one of the first molecular links found between obesity to diabetes and is potentially a target for treatment or prevention of diabetes in obese individuals.

Father's ethnic background influences birthweight, study finds

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:48 AM PDT

A father's ethnic background can influence a child's birthweight, a new study has found. Current birthweight curves -- graphs used to plot how one baby's weight compares to others of the same age -- assume that the parents are of Western European descent. That means many babies of an East Asian or South Asian mother may be classified as underweight, when in fact they are "normal" for their ethnic groups. The new study shows the same is true when the father is of Asian descent.

Joint education standards help GI, hepatology programs meet accreditation requirements

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:47 AM PDT

A team of representatives from five gastroenterology and hepatology societies have created a toolbox designed to help gastroenterology training directors meet the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Internal Medicine Subspecialty Reporting Milestones requirements while training fellows to independently care for patients.

Young teens who receive sexts are six times more likely to report having had sex

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:47 AM PDT

A study provides new understanding of the relationship between 'sexting' and sexual behavior in early adolescence, contributing to the ongoing conversation about whether sexually explicit text messaging is a risk behavior or just a technologically enabled extension of normal teenage flirtation. The latest research found that among middle school students, those who reported receiving a sext were six times more likely to also report being sexually active.

Efficacy doubts over pre-IVF hysteroscopy

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:47 AM PDT

A large multicenter trial seems finally to have resolved one of IVF's long-running controversies -- whether the outlook for women with a poor IVF record can be improved by routine hysteroscopy performed before further IVF treatment. Only around 1/3 of IVF cycles achieve a pregnancy, and unsuccessful attempts can usually be explained by embryonic or uterine factors. As a result, hysteroscopy is performed in many clinics before further attempts to visualize the surface of the uterus and operatively remove any abnormal growths if found.

No link between fertility drugs and breast, ovarian, uterine cancers, study finds

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:47 AM PDT

There is 'little evidence' that the use of conventional fertility hormones used for ovarian stimulation in the treatment of infertility increases the long-term risk of breast and gynecological cancers, according to the results of a substantial 30-year follow-up study. The study was a retrospective investigation involving 12,193 women treated for infertility between 1965 and 1988 at five US sites. A total of 9,892 women were successfully followed for cancer outcomes.

Children born to women after fertility treatment at greater risk of psychiatric disorders

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:47 AM PDT

Children born to women with fertility problems have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders than naturally conceived children, Danish research suggests. The increase in risk was described as 'modest' by researchers, but was found to persist throughout childhood and into young adulthood. Research suggests that 1.9% of all diagnosed psychiatric disorders in Denmark are associated with the mother's infertility.

Videoconferencing with family, friends lowers stress for pediatric patients

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:47 AM PDT

To ease isolation during extended hospitalizations, secure videoconferencing for patients and families can enhance quality of life during long hospital stays. Research clinicians wondered if the technology also offered clinical benefits. To answer that, a team studied 367 children who were hospitalized for at least four days, and found that this access significantly reduced patient stress.

Family worries can cause conflict at work

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:46 AM PDT

Worrying about family problems during work time increases conflict with work colleagues, which can lead to spousal arguments at home in the evening. "These findings may help us to better understand how family-work conflict affects our relationships with others both at work and at home and on a daily basis," said researchers.

Bosses use private social media more than staff

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:46 AM PDT

New research shows that managers hold more negative attitudes to private use of social media at work than subordinates.

Early traumas and young people's reactions to terror

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:45 AM PDT

Adolescents can have post-traumatic stress reactions even when not directly affected by terrorist attacks. They are at increased risk if they have experienced violence or sexual abuse in early life. Those who have experienced sexual abuse numerous times have a doubled risk of post-traumatic stress reactions to a terrorist incident, new research finds.

Almonds reduce the risk of heart disease, research shows

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:45 AM PDT

Eating almonds can reduce the risk of heart disease by keeping blood vessels healthy, research has shown. Research found that they significantly increase the amount of antioxidants in the blood stream, reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow. These findings add weight to the theory that Mediterranean diets with lots of nuts have big health benefits.

Learn Dutch in your sleep: Listening to lessons while sleeping reinforces memory

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:36 AM PDT

When you have learned words in another language, it may be worth listening to them again in your sleep. A study has now shown that this method reinforces memory. "Our method is easy to use in daily life and can be adopted by anyone," says the study director.

One third of knee replacements classified as inappropriate

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:36 AM PDT

More than one third of total knee replacements in the U.S. were classified as "inappropriate" using a patient classification system developed and validated in Spain, a new article reports. The study highlights the need for consensus on patient selection criteria among U.S. medical professionals treating those with the potential need of knee replacement surgery.

It may take guts to cure diabetes

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

By switching off a single gene, scientists have converted human gastrointestinal cells into insulin-producing cells, demonstrating in principle that a drug could retrain cells inside a person's GI tract to produce insulin. The finding raises the possibility that cells lost in type 1 diabetes may be more easily replaced through the reeducation of existing cells than through the transplantation of new cells created from embryonic or adult stem cells.

Fat damages the lungs of heavy drinkers

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

The so called fatty liver disease that long time drinkers develop may extend to the lung in a newly discovered side effect of drinking in rats that researchers are calling fatty lung disease. Heavy drinking damages the body in many ways. In addition to liver failure, alcoholics are at a much greater risk of developing pneumonia and life threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), for which there is no treatment.

Common herbal supplement can cause dangerous interactions with prescription drugs

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

St. John's wort, the leading complementary and alternative treatment for depression in the United States, can be dangerous when taken with many commonly prescribed drugs, according to a study. The researchers reported that the herbal supplement can reduce the concentration of numerous drugs in the body, including oral contraceptive, blood thinners, cancer chemotherapy and blood pressure medications, resulting in impaired effectiveness and treatment failure.

Gene variants found that increase pain sensation after common childhood surgery

Posted: 30 Jun 2014 06:33 AM PDT

The first genome-wide analysis of postsurgical pain in children has identified gene variants that affect a child's need for pain-control drugs. The findings may advance the process of calibrating pain-medication doses to a child's genetic makeup. "Although this research is only a first step for our team, it provides tremendous new insight into the biological mechanisms and brings us a little closer to personalizing medicine for pain control," said a co-author.

Watching individual neurons respond to magnetic therapy

Posted: 29 Jun 2014 11:20 AM PDT

A method to record an individual neuron's response to transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy has been developed by researchers. The advance will help researchers understand the underlying physiological effects of TMS -- a procedure used to treat psychiatric disorders -- and optimize its use as a therapeutic treatment.

Single gene separates aggressive, non-aggressive lymphatic system cancer

Posted: 29 Jun 2014 11:20 AM PDT

For a rare form of cancer called thymoma, researchers have discovered a single gene defining the difference between a fast-growing tumor requiring aggressive treatment and a slow-growing tumor that doesn't require extensive therapy. Most of the diagnosed patients have surgery, but, depending on the presumed aggressiveness of the cancer, some patients will have radiation and/or chemotherapy in addition or instead of surgery.

Liver preservation extended for transplantation: Livers successfully stored for three days in animal studies

Posted: 29 Jun 2014 11:17 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a new supercooling technique to increase the amount of time human organs could remain viable outside the body. This study was conducted in rats, and if it succeeds in humans, it would enable a world-wide allocation of donor organs, saving more lives.

How deadly lassa virus infects cells

Posted: 27 Jun 2014 08:31 AM PDT

The Lassa virus, endemic to West Africa, uses an unexpected two-step process to enter cells, research has shown. The results suggest that the mechanism by which Lassa virus causes infection is more complicated than previously known, and could lead to new approaches for preventing the disease.

More than 40 melanoma-specific genes that determine aggressiveness identified

Posted: 27 Jun 2014 08:30 AM PDT

More than 40 genes have been identified that predict the level of aggressiveness of melanoma and that distinguish it from other cancers with a poor prognosis, researchers report. This study is relevant because it explains why a drug is being used to selectively attack the melanoma tumor cells. Melanoma is one of the worst, most metastatic cancers known today.

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου