Σάββατο, 5 Ιουλίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Host genetics can contribute to lung damage in severe tuberculosis

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 11:23 AM PDT

A third of the global population is infected with the bacterial pathogen that causes tuberculosis. Most carriers control the infection and are asymptomatic, but severe forms of the disease kill over a million people every year. A new article now identifies a factor made by the host that exacerbates lung damage in severe TB. The results also suggest why gene mutations that render the factor inactive are common.

Women veterans want options, follow up support when dealing with intimate partner violence

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 09:58 AM PDT

Intimate partner violence is a significant health issue faced by women veterans, but little has been known up until now about their preferences for IPV-related care. A new study has found that most of these women support routine screening for IPV and want options, follow-up support, transparent documentation and Veterans Health Administration and community resources.

Genetic link to autism found, known as CHD8 mutation

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 09:58 AM PDT

In a collaboration involving 13 institutions around the world, researchers have broken new ground in understanding what causes autism. This is the first time researchers have shown a definitive cause of autism to a genetic mutation. Previously identified genetic events like Fragile X, which account for a greater number of autism cases, are associated with other impairments, such as intellectual disability, more than autism.

How beryllium causes deadly lung disease

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 09:55 AM PDT

Using exquisitely detailed maps of molecular shapes and the electrical charges surrounding them, researchers have discovered how the metal beryllium triggers a deadly immune response in the lungs. They show how a genetic susceptibility to the disease creates a molecular pocket, which captures beryllium ions and triggers an inflammatory response in the lungs.

Movement disorders in young people related to ADHD

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 07:26 AM PDT

Researchers have identified a particular genetic mutation that may cause Parkinsonism in young people. The mutation interferes with the brain's transport of the important signal substance dopamine and may also plays a role in mental diseases, e.g. ADHD.

Biological basis for magic mushroom 'mind expansion' discovered

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 07:26 AM PDT

New research shows that our brain displays a similar pattern of activity during dreams as it does during a mind-expanding drug trip. The study found that under psilocybin, activity in the more primitive brain network linked to emotional thinking became more pronounced, with several different areas in this network -- such as the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex -- active at the same time. This pattern of activity is similar to the pattern observed in people who are dreaming.

Artificial cilia: Scientists develop nano-structured transportation system

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 07:26 AM PDT

Cilia, or ciliated epithelia, cover our respiratory tract like a lawn. In our pharynx and nasal mucosa they are responsible for continuously transporting mucus and particles embedded therein towards our throat. (except for heavy smokers, whose cilia where destroyed by nicotine and tar.) Scientists have now come one step closer to their aim of artificially reproducing this biological transport system with switchable molecules.

New social media study investigates relationships among Facebook use, narcissism and empathy

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 07:25 AM PDT

A new study investigated the relationship among adult Facebook users and found that some Facebook features are linked to selfishness and some Facebook activities may encourage empathy.

'Work environment' affects protein properties

Posted: 03 Jul 2014 06:16 AM PDT

The function of proteins, which fulfill various tasks inside the cells, is often analyzed in aqueous buffer solutions. However, it is not known, for example in case of pharmaceutical studies, if they work in the same way in those solutions as in their natural environment: the cytoplasm is highly crowded with biomolecules, organic and inorganic substances. Researchers have now demonstrated that the water surrounding the dissolved substances inside the cell plays a crucial role with regard to protein stability, which has frequently been neglected in the past.

Around two thirds of Viagra may be illegal, warn experts

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 05:39 PM PDT

At least two-thirds of the erectile dysfunction drug sildenafil consumed in the Netherlands may be illegal, warn researchers. They say the consumption of illicit drugs might dwarf consumption of legitimate versions – and they call for the further inquiry into the apparent success of rogue online pharmacies.

Call for Assisted Dying Bill to become law in England

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 05:39 PM PDT

Experts call for Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying Bill, which is expected to receive its second reading in the House of Lords this month, to eventually become law. They argue that people should be able to exercise choice over their lives, which should include how and when they die, when death is imminent. And the majority of the British public want the option too, they add. The 2010 British Social Attitudes survey shows that 82% of people are in favor of a change in the law on assisted dying.

Welfare reforms increasing GP workload, harming patients, finds investigation

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 05:39 PM PDT

The majority of GPs in a survey say their workload has soared in the past year because of their patients' financial hardship under new government rules for receiving benefits. Two thirds believe patients' health is being harmed by benefit cuts, while many feel their professional opinion is regularly disregarded by those assessing people's ability to work.

Acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease each a risk of the other

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 05:38 PM PDT

Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease are closely intertwined, with each disease a risk factor for developing the other and sharing other risk factors in common, as well as sharing causes for the diseases to get worse, and outcomes, suggests a comprehensive analysis by scientists.

New way to prevent dangerous blood clots discovered

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 05:36 PM PDT

Eliminating the enzyme factor XIII reduces the number of red blood cells trapped in a clot, resulting in a 50 percent reduction in the size of the clot, researchers have demonstrated for the first time. The finding has major implications for people at high risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a condition that -- together with its deadly cousin pulmonary embolism -- affects 300,000 to 600,000 people in the United States every year. Between 60,000 and 100,000 people die from these conditions every year in the U.S.

Trial examines treatment for psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 02:00 PM PDT

A clinical trial found a reduction in seizures and improvement in related symptoms, including depression and anxiety, in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures who were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy informed psychotherapy with and without the medication sertraline.

Study estimates effect on surgery following national health insurance expansion

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 02:00 PM PDT

Full implementation of the Affordable Care Act's national health insurance expansion could result in many more discretionary surgical procedures in the next few years based on how utilization changed after an earlier insurance reform in Massachusetts, researchers report.

Brisk walking may improve symptoms of Parkinson's

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 01:59 PM PDT

People with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease who regularly walk for exercise may improve their motor function, mood, tiredness, fitness and some aspects of thinking abilities, according to a study. The study included 60 people who took part in sessions of walking at moderate intensity while wearing heart rate monitors three times a week for 45 minutes per session for six months.

Novel intravaginal ring shows promise for HIV prevention

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 11:06 AM PDT

A novel intravaginal ring implanted with anti-retroviral drug tablets, or pods, demonstrated sustained and controlled drug release and safety over 28 days, according to a study. The ring, designed to prevent transmission of HIV, was tested in pig-tailed macaque monkeys, and is engineered to be inexpensive, all the better for use in developing countries, says a corresponding author.

First national model for bovine TB calls for more focus on cattle

Posted: 02 Jul 2014 10:17 AM PDT

The first national model to investigate the bovine TB spread has been developed by researchers in England. The results derived from the model demonstrated that the majority of herd outbreaks are caused by multiple transmissions routes -- including failed cattle infection tests, cattle movement and reinfection from environmental reservoirs (infected pastures and wildlife). The study suggests that improved testing, vaccination of cattle and culling all cattle on infected farms would be the most effective strategies for controlling the disease.

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