Σάββατο, 26 Απριλίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

'Beneficial inflammation' may promote healing in pulmonary fibrosis

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 10:40 AM PDT

Inflammation has long been considered an integral part of the biological process that leads to deadly scarring in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. New research, however, suggests that a little inflammation may also be crucial to the healing and repair processes in the lungs. "The role of inflammation in the development of scarring has been hotly debated in recent years," said one researcher. "Our findings show for the first time that TNF-alpha actually promotes inflammation during the resolution of established scarring. A little inflammation may actually be a good thing in the right place and time."

Genome regions once mislabeled 'junk' linked to heart failure

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 10:40 AM PDT

Large sections of the genome that were once referred to as 'junk' DNA have been linked to human heart failure, according to research. So-called junk DNA was long thought to have no important role in heredity or disease because it doesn't code for proteins. But emerging research in recent years has revealed that many of these sections of the genome produce RNA molecules that, despite not being proteins, still have important functions in the body. RNA is a close chemical cousin to DNA.

Aging linked to cellular interactions that occur across generations

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 10:40 AM PDT

By studying the reproductive cells of nematodes -- tiny worms found in soil and compost bins -- a researcher identified the Piwi/piRNA genome silencing pathway, the loss of which results in infertility after many generations. This study also found a signaling pathway -- a series of molecular interactions inside cells -- that could be tweaked to overcome infertility while also causing the worms to live longer adult lives.

Almost half of homeless men had traumatic brain injury in their lifetime

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 07:47 AM PDT

Almost half of all homeless men who took part in a study had suffered at least one traumatic brain injury in their life and 87 percent of those injuries occurred before the men lost their homes. While assaults were a major cause of those traumatic brain injuries, or TBIs, (60 per cent) many were caused by potentially non-violent mechanisms such as sports and recreation (44 per cent) and motor vehicle collisions and falls (42 per cent).

Function found for mysterious heart disease gene

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 07:47 AM PDT

A mysterious gene that likely influences cardiovascular health has become a little more understood, thanks to recent research. After five years, researchers now know how one genetic variant works and suspect that it contributes to the development of heart disease through processes that promote chronic inflammation and cell division.

Know your enemy: Deciphering oligomers' role in Parkinson's

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 07:47 AM PDT

The most detailed 'image of the enemy' to date has been developed of one of the body's most important players in the development of Parkinson's disease. This provides much greater understanding of the battle taking place when the disease occurs -- knowledge that is necessary if we are to understand and treat the disease. Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurological disorders.

Not all wedded bliss: Marital stress linked to depression

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 07:46 AM PDT

Marital stress may make people more vulnerable to depression, according to a recent study. The long-term study shows that people who experience chronic marital stress are less able to savor positive experiences, a hallmark of depression. They are also more likely to report other depressive symptoms. Married people are, in general, happier and healthier than single people, according to numerous studies. But marriage can also be one of the most significant sources of long-lasting social stress.

Civil war inside our cells: Scientists show how our bodies fight off 'jumping genes'

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 06:18 AM PDT

There's a civil war going on inside every one of the 37 trillion cells in your body. Now, scientists have uncovered how your cells keep this war from causing too much collateral damage. On one side of the battle: your "regular" DNA, which provides the day-to-day instructions for life. On the other side: tiny bits of rogue DNA that hide like spies between genes in your own DNA. From time to time, these rogue bits of DNA spin off a copy of themselves and "jump" to another DNA location – often causing harmful mutations when they land.

Gene mutation, key symptoms of autism appear to be linked

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 06:18 AM PDT

Abnormal brain growth is associated with autism spectrum disorder -- this scientists know. However, the relationship between the two has not been well understood. Now, research has shown that mutations in a specific gene that is disrupted in some individuals with autism results in too much growth throughout the brain, and yet surprisingly specific problems in social interactions, at least in mouse models that mimic this risk factor in humans.

Couples need just one conversation to decide not to have children

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 04:52 AM PDT

Many couples agree not to have children after only one discussion, and sometimes none at all. "Not having children is obviously a very important decision, and what was interesting from the research was the negligible amount of discussion that couples engaged in -- many are agreeing not to have children in one conversation, or in an unspoken way," a researcher on the study noted. "One possible reason that couples did not need to talk about the issue much is that they could accurately sense their partner did not want children from their beliefs and lifestyle."

Two breath compounds could be associated with larynx cancer

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 04:50 AM PDT

Volatile substances exhaled by eleven people with cancer of larynx have been compared with those of another twenty healthy people. The results show that the concentrations of certain molecules, mainly ethanol and 2-butanone, are higher in individuals with carcinoma, therefore they act as potential markers of the disease. Human breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and some of them can be used as non-invasive biomarkers for various types of head and neck cancers as well as cancer of the larynx.

Seeking causes of hyperactivity

Posted: 25 Apr 2014 04:50 AM PDT

The 60 trillion cells that comprise our bodies communicate constantly. Information travels when chemical compounds released by some cells are received by receptors in the membrane of another cell. Mice lacking an intracellular trafficking protein called LMTK3, are hyperactive, research shows. Hyperactivity is a behavioral disorder that shows symptoms including restlessness, lack of coordination, and aggressive behavior. Identifying the genetic factors that contribute to such behaviors may help to explain the pathological mechanisms underlying autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, in humans.

Interactive training halves malaria overdiagnosis, prevents wastage of drugs

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 07:31 PM PDT

Interactive training programs for health workers could halve the overdiagnosis of malaria and prevent wastage of valuable drugs, new research concludes. The African study compared the use of RDTs when packaged with either a basic or a comprehensive training program for clinicians. Their results showed that those undertaking the comprehensive program were much less likely to overuse antimalarials.

Increasing consumption of coffee associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, study finds

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 04:05 PM PDT

Increasing coffee consumption by on average one and half cups per day over a four-year period reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes by 11 percent, research shows. Coffee and tea consumption has been associated with a lower type 2 diabetes risk but little is known about how changes in coffee and tea consumption influence subsequent type 2 diabetes risk, until now.

Higher muscle mass linked with better physical function, quality of life in dialysis patients

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 04:04 PM PDT

Dialysis patients with higher BMI, waist circumference, and abdominal fat measures had poorer scores on a 6-minute walking test, according to a new study. Patients with more muscle mass had better scores on the walking test as well as better scores on physical and mental health questionnaires. The findings may help explain the "obesity paradox" associated with dialysis patients, which relates to the prolonged survival sometimes seen in obese patients compared with normal-weight patients.

Many patients who could benefit from home dialysis are receiving care in dialysis centers

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 04:03 PM PDT

Kidney failure patients from the most advantaged areas in Australia were less likely to use home dialysis and more likely to use in-center hemodialysis than patients from the most disadvantaged areas. Patients from the most advantaged areas were more likely to use private hospitals than those from the most disadvantaged areas.

'Horsing around' reduces stress hormones in youth

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 02:05 PM PDT

New research reveals how youth who work with horses experience a substantial reduction in stress -- and the evidence lies in kids' saliva. "We were coming at this from a prevention perspective," said a developmental psychologist working on this study. "We are especially interested in optimizing healthy stress hormone production in young adolescents, because we know from other research that healthy stress hormone patterns may protect against the development of physical and mental health problems."

Controlling brain waves to improve vision

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 02:05 PM PDT

A novel technique to test brain waves is being used to see how the brain processes external stimuli that do and don't reach our awareness. "When we have different things competing for our attention, we can only be aware of so much of what we see," said a researcher on the study. "For example, when you're driving, you might really be concentrating on obeying traffic signals." But say there's an unexpected event: an emergency vehicle, a pedestrian -- will you actually see the unexpected, or will you be so focused on your initial task that you don't notice?

What makes psychotic teens more at risk for suicide than other groups with psychosis?

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 01:15 PM PDT

Suicide is a general risk for people with psychosis. According to research, 20 percent to 40 percent of those diagnosed with psychosis attempt suicide, and up to 10 percent succeed. And teens with psychotic symptoms are nearly 70 times more likely to attempt suicide than adolescents in the general population. Researchers recently reviewed studies of teenagers with psychosis to better understand why they are more at risk for suicide than other groups similarly diagnosed.

New guidelines aim to improve care for babies with heart problems in the womb

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 01:15 PM PDT

Heart experts have developed the first scientific statement on detecting, managing and treating heart abnormalities in the womb. Medicines, fetal procedures, careful monitoring and strategies for delivery room care are improving the health of babies with heart abnormalities from before birth and beyond. Providers should help families overcome anxiety and depression, so they can transition from grief to acceptance and become active members of the team that cares for their baby.

Targeting B cells may help with multiple sclerosis, study shows

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 01:15 PM PDT

A new study suggests that targeting B cells, which are a type of white blood cell in the immune system, may be associated with reduced disease activity for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The researchers found that when B cells were reduced to below a threshold of 64 cells per microliter, disease activity, as measured by appearance of new brain lesions, was significantly reduced.

Risk of traffic accident injury depends on sex and age, Spanish study finds

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 08:30 AM PDT

Young men are more likely to injure themselves on the road or crossing a street than women, but among the elderly, females are more vulnerable. This is according to a study on injuries and citizen mobility. According to the researchers, the fact that the risk is greater in child pedestrians and young male drivers can be associated with their greater risk taking at the wheel and in the case of girls, when crossing the street, as well as the fact that they act recklessly more frequently, such as speeding and consuming psychoactive substances.

New approach for surgery patients cuts hospital stays, costs

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 08:27 AM PDT

Changes in managing patients before, during and after colorectal surgery cut hospital stays by two days and reduced readmission rates, according to researchers. The practice, called enhanced recovery, is easier on patients before surgery, doing away with the fasting period and bowel evacuation that are typically prescribed. After surgery, patients are encouraged to eat and move about as soon as possible, leading to faster recoveries.

Physical signs of depression common among ICU survivors

Posted: 24 Apr 2014 07:28 AM PDT

Depression affects more than one out of three survivors of critical illness, according to a study released, and the majority of patients experience their symptoms physically rather than mentally. Weakness, appetite change and fatigue -- all signs of somatic, or physical, depression -- were present in two-thirds of the patients, as opposed to cognitive symptoms such as sadness, guilt or pessimism.

Marijuana use may increase heart complications in young, middle-aged adults

Posted: 23 Apr 2014 02:09 PM PDT

Marijuana use may result in heart-related complications in young and middle-aged adults. Nearly 2 percent of the health complications from marijuana use reported were cardiovascular related. A quarter of these complications resulted in death, according to a study. Surveillance of marijuana-related reports of cardiovascular disorders should continue and more research needs to look at how marijuana use might trigger cardiovascular events, researchers say.

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου