Δευτέρα, 21 Απριλίου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

NASA completes LADEE mission with planned impact on moon's surface

Posted: 19 Apr 2014 04:37 PM PDT

Ground controllers at NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., have confirmed that NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft impacted the surface of the moon, as planned, between 9:30 and 10:22 p.m. PDT Thursday, April 17.

Counterfeit contraceptives found in South America

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 04:02 PM PDT

A survey of emergency contraceptive pills in Peru found that 28 percent of the batches studied were either of substandard quality or falsified. Many pills released the active ingredient too slowly. Others had the wrong active ingredient. One batch had no active ingredient at all.

Researchers rethink 'natural' habitat for wildlife

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 01:14 PM PDT

Protecting wildlife while feeding a world population predicted to reach nine billion by 2050 will require a holistic approach to conservation that considers human-altered landscapes such as farmland, according to researchers. A new study finds that a long-accepted theory used to estimate extinction rates, predict ecological risk and make conservation policy recommendations is overly pessimistic. The researchers point to an alternative framework that promises a more effective way of accounting for human-altered landscapes and assessing ecological risks.

MRI, on a molecular scale: System could one day peer into the atomic structure of individual molecules

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 01:14 PM PDT

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that can produce nano-scale images, and may one day allow researchers to peer into the atomic structure of individual molecules, has been developed by researchers. For decades, scientists have used techniques like X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR) to gain invaluable insight into the atomic structure of molecules, but such efforts have long been hampered by the fact that they demand large quantities of a specific molecule and often in ordered and crystalized form to be effective -- making it all but impossible to peer into the structure of most molecules.

Finding turns neuroanatomy on its head: Researchers present new view of myelin

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 01:14 PM PDT

Neuroscientists have made a discovery that turns 160 years of neuroanatomy on its head. Myelin, the electrical insulating material long known to be essential for the fast transmission of impulses along the axons of nerve cells, is not as ubiquitous as thought, according to a new work. "The fact that it is the most evolved neurons, the ones that have expanded dramatically in humans, suggests that what we're seeing might be the "future." As neuronal diversity increases and the brain needs to process more and more complex information, neurons change the way they use myelin to "achieve" more," says the main researcher.

Proteins conspire to make breast cancer cells resistant to drug treatment

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 01:13 PM PDT

The interaction between two proteins called BCAR1 and BCAR3 is responsible for resistance to antiestrogen drugs, paving the way for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. "Drug resistance is one of the most serious obstacles to breast cancer eradication," said the senior study author. "Our findings suggest that strategies to disrupt the BCAR1-BCAR3 complex and associated signaling networks could potentially overcome this obstacle and ultimately lead to more-effective breast cancer therapies."

Future heat waves pose risk for population of Greater London

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 11:49 AM PDT

The effects of future heat waves on people living in Greater London in 2050 has been modeled in a study, which concludes that the risk of heat-related deaths could be significantly reduced if buildings were adapted properly for climate change. The model, which takes into account future changes to urban land use and human-made heat emissions, estimates an additional 800 heat-related deaths per year by 2050.

Better way to deal with bad memories suggested

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 11:11 AM PDT

A simple and effective emotion-regulation strategy that has neurologically and behaviorally been proven to lessen the emotional impact of personal negative memories, researchers have shown. "Sometimes we dwell on how sad, embarrassed, or hurt we felt during an event, and that makes us feel worse and worse. But we found that instead of thinking about your emotions during a negative memory, looking away from the worst emotions and thinking about the context, like a friend who was there, what the weather was like, or anything else non-emotional that was part of the memory, will rather effortlessly take your mind away from the unwanted emotions associated with that memory," the researchers suggest.

Under some LED bulbs whites aren't 'whiter than white'

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 11:11 AM PDT

For years, companies have been adding whiteners to laundry detergent, paints, plastics, paper and fabrics to make whites look 'whiter than white,' but now, with a switch away from incandescent and fluorescent lighting, different degrees of whites may all look the same, according to experts in lighting.

Innovative strategy to facilitate organ repair

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 11:11 AM PDT

A significant breakthrough could revolutionize surgical practice and regenerative medicine. Researchers have demonstrated that the principle of adhesion by aqueous solutions of nanoparticles can be used in vivo to repair soft-tissue organs and tissues. This adhesion method is exceptional because of its potential spectrum of clinical applications. It is simple, easy to use and the nanoparticles employed can be metabolized by the organism. It can easily be integrated into ongoing research on healing and tissue regeneration and contribute to the development of regenerative medicine.

Chronic inflammation linked to 'high-grade' prostate cancer

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 05:33 AM PDT

Men who show signs of chronic inflammation in non-cancerous prostate tissue may have nearly twice the risk of actually having prostate cancer than those with no inflammation, according to results of a new study. The link between persistent inflammation and cancer was even stronger for men with so-called high-grade prostate cancer -- those with a Gleason score between 7 and 10 -- indicating the presence of the most aggressive and rapidly growing prostate cancers.

Boomers' dark secret: Booze; What their caregivers don’t know or don't ask could end up hurting aging patients

Posted: 18 Apr 2014 05:33 AM PDT

By 2015, all baby boomers will be 50 or older. In an editorial, one expert writes that, unlike members of previous generations, many of these individuals have been using alcohol (and other drugs) for their entire adult lives. There are consequences. "Alcohol is a dirty drug, and it causes all kinds of long-term problems," the author says. Alcohol contributes to increased risk for more than 65 diseases and conditions, including pancreatic, breast, and ear, nose, and throat cancers, liver disease, injuries, and cognitive impairment.

New pain relief targets discovered by researchers

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 04:16 PM PDT

New pain relief targets that could be used to provide relief from chemotherapy-induced pain have been discovered by researchers while researching how pain occurs in nerves in the periphery of the body. "We have been investigating and identifying mechanisms underlying pain generation and our findings could help chemotherapy patients who suffer pain related side effects," one author noted.

First genetic link discovered to difficult-to-diagnose breast cancer sub-type

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 04:16 PM PDT

The discovery of the genetic variant, in conjunction with other markers, could help in the development of future genetic screening tools to assess women's risk of developing invasive lobular cancer, and also gives researchers important new clues about the genetic causes of the disease and a related precursor to cancer called lobular carcinoma in situ.

Progressive neurodegenerative disorder linked to R-loop formation

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 04:16 PM PDT

A new feature of the genetic mutation responsible for the progressive neurodegenerative disorder, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome -- the formation of 'R-loops,' has been discovered. Researchers believe it may be associated with the disorder's neurological symptoms, such as tremors, lack of balance, features of Parkinsonism, and cognitive decline.

Sporting latest tech toy can make you seem more like a leader

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 04:11 PM PDT

If you want to be perceived as a leader, new research suggests investing in the latest technological gadgets is the way to go. "Familiarity with and usage of new high-tech products appears to be a common manifestation of innovative behavior," write the authors. "Those who are tech-savvy are also perceived as authoritative on other subjects and as leaders."

Prenatal risk factors may put children at risk of developing kidney disease

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 04:11 PM PDT

Certain prenatal risk factors are associated with the development of chronic kidney disease in children, according to a study. Future studies should investigate whether modifying these factors could help protect children's kidney health. Risks for certain types of kidney disease may arise before birth, and researchers suspect that the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be programmed prenatally. These may include birth weight, maternal diabetes, and maternal overweight/obesity.

Live cell imaging reveals distinct alterations of subcellular glutathione potentials

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 01:42 PM PDT

Glutathione is the most abundant cellular redox buffer that both protects cells from oxidative damage and mediates cellular signaling. Perturbation of glutathione balance has been associated with tumorigenesis; however, due to analytical limitations, the underlying mechanisms behind this relationship are poorly understood. Utilizing a recently developed genetically encoded redox-sensitive probe has revealed differentially regulated redox environments within cellular compartments, and evidence of the contributory role of the p53 protein in supporting cytosolic redox poise.

Weight gain in children occurs after tonsil removal, not linked to obesity

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 01:41 PM PDT

Weight gain in children after they have their tonsils removed (adenotonsillectomy) occurs primarily in children who are smaller and younger at the time of the surgery, and weight gain was not linked with increased rates of obesity. "Despite the finding that many children gain weight and have higher BMIs after tonsillectomy, in our study, the proportion of children who were obese before surgery remained statistically unchanged after surgery. On the basis of this work, adenotonsillectomy does not correlate with increased rates of childhood obesity," researchers conclude.

Findings shed light on seagrass needs

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 01:41 PM PDT

Seagrass beds, which provide home and food for fish, manatees, sea turtles and other animals, find themselves in peril. A new study shows how much sunlight is needed to keep the seagrass healthy. Loss of seagrass means fish, crabs and other animals lose their homes and manatees and sea turtles lose a source of food. Nutrients, such as phosphorous, may prevent seagrass from getting the sunlight it needs to thrive. Nutrients may come from many sources, among them fertilizers used in agriculture, golf courses and suburban lawns, pet waste and septic tank waste.

Mutant enzyme RECQ4 connected to cancer's 'Warburg effect'

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 01:40 PM PDT

A cancer-prone mutation of the gene RECQ4 causes its corresponding enzyme, RECQ4, to accumulate in the mitochondria. This can cause mitochondrial dysfunction, possibly explaining cancer's "Warburg effect" of preferring lactic acid fermentation over aerobic respiration to generate energy. While this study provides important clues to solving the Warburg effect puzzle, the senior author said further studies are needed on RECQ4 and p32 to better explain cancer's biological processes.

New perspective on sepsis published

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 12:12 PM PDT

It's time to take a fresh look at the medical community's approach to treating sepsis, which kills millions worldwide every year, including more than 200,000 Americans, one expert says. Sepsis occurs when molecules released into the bloodstream to fight an injury or infection trigger inflammation throughout the body. Persistent and constant inflammation often results in organ dysfunction or damage, leading to death -- 28 to 50 percent of people who suffer from sepsis die from the condition.

Anti-seizure drug may reduce alcohol consumption, study shows

Posted: 17 Apr 2014 10:35 AM PDT

The anti-seizure drug ezogabine, reduced alcohol consumption in an experimental model, researchers report. The findings may lead to more effective treatments for alcoholism. Excessive consumption of alcohol is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the U.S. and has significant negative economic impact by limiting the productivity of workers and necessitating huge health care expenditures.

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