Πέμπτη, 29 Μαΐου 2014

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

Cynical? You may be hurting your brain health

Posted: 28 May 2014 01:37 PM PDT

People with high levels of cynical distrust may be more likely to develop dementia, according to a new study. Cynical distrust, which is defined as the belief that others are mainly motivated by selfish concerns, has been associated with other health problems, such as heart disease. This is the first study to look at the relationship between cynicism and dementia.

Light coaxes stem cells to repair teeth: Noninvasive laser therapy could radically shift dental treatment

Posted: 28 May 2014 12:05 PM PDT

Scientists have used low-power light to trigger stem cells inside the body to regenerate tissue. The research lays the foundation for a host of clinical applications in restorative dentistry and regenerative medicine more broadly, such as wound healing, bone regeneration, and more.

Toxins in the environment might make you older than your years

Posted: 28 May 2014 10:32 AM PDT

Why are some 75-year-olds downright spry while others can barely get around? Part of the explanation, say researchers is differences from one person to the next in exposure to harmful substances in the environment, chemicals such as benzene, cigarette smoke, and even stress.

Antarctic Ice Sheet unstable at end of last ice age

Posted: 28 May 2014 10:31 AM PDT

A new study has found that the Antarctic Ice Sheet began melting about 5,000 years earlier than previously thought coming out of the last ice age -- and that shrinkage of the vast ice sheet accelerated during eight distinct episodes, causing rapid sea level rise.

Extensive cataloging of human proteins uncovers 193 never known to exist

Posted: 28 May 2014 10:31 AM PDT

Striving for the protein equivalent of the Human Genome Project, an international team of researchers has created an initial catalog of the human 'proteome,' or all of the proteins in the human body. In total, using 30 different human tissues, the team identified proteins encoded by 17,294 genes, which is about 84 percent of all of the genes in the human genome predicted to encode proteins.

PTSD treatment cost-effective when patients given choice

Posted: 28 May 2014 10:27 AM PDT

A cost-analysis of post-traumatic stress disorder treatments shows that letting patients choose their course of treatment – either psychotherapy or medication – is less expensive than assigning a treatment and provides a higher quality of life for patients. "This is one of the first studies to look at the cost of providing mental health care and comparing different treatments for PTSD," said a co-author of the study. "It has tremendous implications for how large health care systems such as the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs proceed with treating PTSD."

Uncovering Clues to the Genetic Cause of Schizophrenia

Posted: 28 May 2014 10:27 AM PDT

The overall number and nature of mutations—rather than the presence of any single mutation—influences an individual's risk of developing schizophrenia, as well as its severity, according to a new discovery. The findings could have important implications for the early detection and treatment of schizophrenia.

Major discovery on the mechanism of drug resistance in leukemia and other cancers

Posted: 28 May 2014 10:26 AM PDT

A mechanism that enables the development of resistance to Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) anticancer drugs, thereby leading to relapse, has been identified by researchers. The new discovery constitutes a major breakthrough in the fight against AML, one of the deadliest forms of leukemia, because it immediately suggests strategies to overcome drug resistance. Furthermore, the type of drug resistance the team identified is likely implicated in other cancers and a successful new treatment regimen based on these findings could have broad applications in treating cancer.

Marathon runners’ times develop in a U shape

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:33 AM PDT

Spanish researchers have demonstrated that the relationship between marathon running times and the age of the athlete is U-shaped. The work shows the unusual fact that it takes an 18-year-old athlete the same amount of time to finish a marathon as a 55- or 60-year-old runner.

NASA IceBridge concludes Arctic field campaign

Posted: 28 May 2014 09:45 AM PDT

Researchers with NASA's Operation IceBridge have completed another successful Arctic field campaign. On May 23, NASA's P-3 research aircraft left Thule Air Base, Greenland, and returned to Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia marking the end of 11 weeks of polar research.

Technology marketers should take consumer life-cycle into account, new study shows

Posted: 28 May 2014 08:48 AM PDT

Marketers should pay attention to where consumers are in their lifecycles when determining how to get them to adopt new technologies. Marketers may have incorrectly assumed that older consumers avoid products such as debit or credit cards because they are technophobic or find them hard to learn. Instead, the paper suggests, these consumers may simply see limited future benefits to changing their current habits because of their shorter remaining lifespans.

Cats found to eat more in the winter

Posted: 28 May 2014 08:48 AM PDT

Cats eat more during the winter and owners should give their pet more food during this time, research has found. The study found that cats ate approximately 15% less food during summer, and the vets have concluded that the extra effort to keep warm in winter and the temptation to rest during hot summer days contributed to the swing in activity levels during the year.

Dialysis patients' anxiety, depression linked to physical impairments

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:54 AM PDT

Higher rates of depression and anxiety among adults undergoing dialysis could be associated with their impaired physical exercise capability and reduced daily physical activity, researchers have found. Hemodialysis is a life-preserving treatment for hundreds of thousands of Americans with kidney failure. It is a medical procedure to remove fluid and waste products from the blood and to correct electrolyte imbalances. This is accomplished using a machine and a dialyzer, which is sometimes described as an "artificial kidney."

Panama saves whales, protects world trade

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:54 AM PDT

A new scheme to separate boat traffic coming into the Panama Canal from humpback whales migrating through tropical waters, based on two research papers, has been approved by the International Maritime Organization. Panama is a leader in global commerce and a steward of exceptional marine biodiversity. Nearly 17,000 commercial vessels cross the Gulf of Panama each year. This number is expected to increase significantly when new locks now under construction permit larger, "post Panamax" vessels to transit the Canal and enter its ports.

What can plants reveal about gene flow? That it's an important evolutionary force

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:54 AM PDT

How much gene flow is there between plant populations? How important is gene flow for maintaining a species' identity and diversity, and what are the implications of these processes for evolution, conservation of endangered species, invasiveness, or unintentional gene flow from domesticated crops to wild relatives?

Water in moon rocks provides clues and questions about lunar history

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:54 AM PDT

A recent review of hundreds of chemical analyses of Moon rocks indicates that the amount of water in the Moon's interior varies regionally -- revealing clues about how water originated and was redistributed in the Moon. These discoveries provide a new tool to unravel the processes involved in the formation of the Moon, how the lunar crust cooled, and its impact history.

In Africa, STI testing could boost HIV prevention

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:53 AM PDT

Sexually transmitted infections can make HIV transmission more likely, undermining the prevention benefit of HIV treatment. A new study of HIV-positive patients in Cape Town, South Africa, found that the prevalence of such co-infections was much higher before beginning HIV treatment. Testing for and treating STIs and HIV together could therefore improve HIV prevention.

'Nanodaisies' deliver drug cocktail to cancer cells

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:53 AM PDT

Daisy-shaped, nanoscale structures that are made predominantly of anti-cancer drugs and are capable of introducing a 'cocktail' of multiple drugs into cancer cells, biomedical engineering researchers report. Once injected, the nanodaisies float through the bloodstream until they are absorbed by cancer cells. Once in a cancer cell, the drugs are released.

Flame retardants during pregnancy as bad as lead? Exposure linked to lower IQs in kids

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:52 AM PDT

Prenatal exposure to flame retardants can be significantly linked to lower IQs and greater hyperactivity in five-year old children. The researchers found that a 10-fold increase in PBDE concentrations in early pregnancy, when the fetal brain is developing, was associated with a 4.5 IQ decrement, which is comparable with the impact of environmental lead exposure. PBDEs have been widely used as flame retardants in furniture, carpet padding, car seats and other consumer products over the past three decades.

Universal antidote for snakebite: Experimental trial represents promising step toward

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:52 AM PDT

Another promising step has been made toward developing a universal antidote for snakebite. The results of this pilot study revealed findings that support the team's idea that providing fast, accessible, and easy-to-administer treatment can increase survival rates in victims of venomous snakebite.

Dads who do chores bolster daughters' aspirations

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:52 AM PDT

Fathers who help with household chores are more likely to raise daughters who aspire to less traditional, and potentially higher paying, careers. So finds a new study that suggests how parents share dishes, laundry and other domestic duties plays a key role in shaping the gender attitudes and aspirations of their children, especially daughters.

Marine fish use red biofluorescence to communicate, new research shows

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:40 AM PDT

Marine fish use red biofluorescence to communicate, new research shows. One of the most exciting discoveries, the researchers say, is that the fluorescence is a deep red in a part of the spectrum which, it was previously believed, fish could not see or make use of. It could be that red-eye wrasses use their fluorescence as a private frequency to communicate amongst themselves.

Artificial lung the size of a sugar cube may replace animal testing

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:40 AM PDT

What medications can be used to treat lung cancer, and how effective are they? Until now, drug companies have had to rely on animal testing to find out. But in the future, a new 3-D model lung is set to achieve more precise results and ultimately minimize -- or even completely replace -- animal testing.

Fish more inclined to crash into each other than bees

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:33 AM PDT

Swimming fish do not appear to use their collision warning system in the same way as flying insects, according to new research that has compared how zebra fish and bumblebees avoid collisions. The fish surprised the researchers.

Research demonstrates how much we distrust people who are mean with money

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:33 AM PDT

We distrust people who are mean with their money, according to new findings. Study participants had no face-to-face contact but played a series of interactive games. They had to make decisions about whom to trust in their dealings with other players, based on information they were given on the level of these other players' generosity in previous games. The experiments revealed that participants who had been mean with their money were trusted less, and indeed were more likely to be untrustworthy.

Detecting oceanic carbon dioxide sink today and in the future

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:33 AM PDT

The ocean has steadily taken up excess anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but a slow down is expected in various parts of the ocean. The current observational network needs to be improved to monitor these changes. Using the latest collection of data and state-of-the-art Earth system models, researchers confirm that ocean partial pressure of carbon dioxide has steadily increased following the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in the past four decades. A large portion of this increase is attributed to the ongoing invasion of anthropogenic carbon dioxide into the ocean, whereas increase in sea surface temperature contributes only marginally.

Trends in British dragonfly species revealed in new atlas

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:33 AM PDT

A new atlas of the dragonflies of Britain and Ireland is published today. The atlas is the result of a five year research project by the British Dragonfly Society (BDS) which builds on data collected over the last two centuries.

Sperm, egg donors comfortable assisting with betweeen one and 10 childen, Swedish study finds

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:33 AM PDT

Between one and ten children: that is what the majority of Swedish egg and sperm donors think is an acceptable level for their assistance to childless couples. Female donors are more restrictive than male donors, according to a study. The study, the first of its kind, included 119 sperm donors and 181 egg donors. Prior to their first donation they had to complete a questionnaire that was followed up five to eight years later.

MRI catches breast cancer early in at-risk survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma

Posted: 28 May 2014 07:29 AM PDT

Magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) detected invasive breast tumors at very early stages, when cure rates are expected to be excellent reports the largest clinical study to evaluate breast cancer screening of female survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). These patients are at increased risk because they received chest radiation.

The clumping behavior of galaxies

Posted: 28 May 2014 06:37 AM PDT

Active, supermassive black holes at the hearts of galaxies tend to fall into two categories: those that are hidden by dust, and those that are exposed. Data from NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, have shown that galaxies with hidden supermassive black holes tend to clump together in space more than the galaxies with exposed, or unobscured, black holes.

SpaceX-3 science payloads return to Kennedy

Posted: 28 May 2014 05:59 AM PDT

A trio of science payloads have completed their missions on the International Space Station and returned to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, where they'll be turned over to the scientists who designed them.

NASA balloon campaign studies effects of volcanic eruption

Posted: 28 May 2014 05:57 AM PDT

A team of NASA and University of Wyoming scientists has ventured into the Australian bush to send a series of balloons aloft to make measurements of a volcanic plume originating from neighboring Indonesia.

NASA, Khan Academy collaborate to bring STEM opportunities to online learners

Posted: 28 May 2014 05:54 AM PDT

NASA and Khan Academy, a non-profit educational website, has debuted a series of online tutorials designed to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, or STEM. The announcement of the new collaborative effort was made today at the 6th annual White House Science Fair.

Striking lack of diversity in prehistoric birds

Posted: 27 May 2014 06:49 PM PDT

Birds come in astounding variety -- from hummingbirds to emus -- and behave in myriad ways: they soar the skies, swim the waters, and forage the forests. But this wasn't always the case, according to new research.

FDA approves many drugs that predictably increase heart, stroke risk

Posted: 27 May 2014 03:54 PM PDT

The agency charged to protect patients from dangerous drug side effects needs to be more vigilant when it comes to medications that affect blood pressure. A clinical professor of family medicine has issued this call to the Food and Drug Administration. At issue is the apparent disconnect between what patients and doctors might consider "clinically significant" risk and the standards that some FDA reviewers apply when evaluating the safety of new therapeutics.

Disturbance in blood flow leads to epigenetic changes, atherosclerosis

Posted: 27 May 2014 03:53 PM PDT

Disturbed patterns of blood flow induce lasting epigenetic changes to genes in the cells that line blood vessels, and those changes contribute to atherosclerosis, researchers have found. The findings suggest why the protective effects of good blood flow patterns, which aerobic exercise promotes, can persist over time.

Risk of chemotherapy related hospitalization for eary-stage breast cancer patients

Posted: 27 May 2014 01:17 PM PDT

Oncologists now have a new understanding of the toxicity levels of specific chemotherapy regimens used for women with early stage breast cancer, according to research. The retrospective study used large population-based data to compare the risk of hospitalization for six common chemotherapy regimens. Reasons for hospitalization included infection, fever, anemia, dehydration, neutropenia (low white blood cell count), thrombocytopenia (low blood platelets) and delirium.

Precision-guided epidurals, better blood monitors for better care

Posted: 27 May 2014 10:33 AM PDT

An established imaging technology called 'optical coherence tomography,' or OCT, has been integrated with other instruments to bring about the next revolution in imaging by helping doctors provide safer, less painful and more effective care for women in labor and people with diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma.

Moving 'natural capital' from metaphor to reality: New approach to calculating price of stocks

Posted: 27 May 2014 10:33 AM PDT

An approach to calculating a fair and consistent price for natural capital stocks that is grounded in the same theory of economic capital that governs the pricing of other capital assets, from stock prices to factories, has been developed.

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