Σάββατο, 31 Μαΐου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

3-D bioprinting builds a better blood vessel

Posted: 30 May 2014 04:05 PM PDT

The tangled highway of blood vessels that twists and turns inside our bodies, delivering essential nutrients and disposing of hazardous waste to keep our organs working properly has been a conundrum for scientists trying to make artificial vessels from scratch. Now a team has made headway in fabricating blood vessels using a three-dimensional bioprinting technique.

Atomic structure of essential circadian clock protein complex determined

Posted: 30 May 2014 10:33 AM PDT

For the first time, the molecular structure of a protein complex that plays an important role in regulating the circadian rhythm has been identified by a team of researchers. "Our circadian clock controls many important physiological functions," explained one resesarcher. If the natural rhythm is disrupted, as for example in the case of people on shift work, the likelihood of developing metabolic disorders, diabetes, or cancer is significantly increased.

Dangers of chemotherapy regimen for bladder cancer patients uncovered by clinical trial

Posted: 30 May 2014 10:33 AM PDT

Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer often benefit from chemotherapy before surgery to remove the tumor, but a test of one regimen by researchers was halted when too many people experienced serious side effects such as heart attacks and blood clots in the legs and lungs.

Researchers see stem cells take key step toward development: A first

Posted: 30 May 2014 10:33 AM PDT

The gap between stem cell research and regenerative medicine just became a lot narrower, thanks to a new technique that coaxes stem cells to take the first step to specialization for the first time in a laboratory. Researchers demonstrated that not only is it possible for mouse embryonic stem cells to form three distinct germ layers in the lab, but also that it requires correct timing, chemical factors and mechanical environment.

Green tea could reduce pancreatic cancer risk: Study explains how

Posted: 30 May 2014 10:32 AM PDT

A new study explains how green tea changed the metabolism of pancreatic cancer cells, opening a new area in cancer-fighting research. Green tea and its extracts have been widely touted as potential treatments for cancer, as well as several other diseases. But scientists have struggled to explain how the green tea and its extracts may work to reduce the risk of cancer or to slow the growth of cancer cells.

First real-time movies of the light-to-current conversion in an organic solar cell

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:44 AM PDT

Scientists have reported the first real-time movies of the light-to-current conversion process in an organic solar cell. Researchers show that the quantum-mechanical, wavelike nature of electrons and their coupling to the nuclei is of fundamental importance for the charge transfer in an organic photovoltaic device.

Radiation for prostate cancer linked to secondary cancers, study finds

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:44 AM PDT

Among men treated for prostate cancer, those who received radiation therapy were more likely to develop bladder or rectal cancer, according to a new study. "Overall the incidence of these cancers is low. But when men have received radiation treatments, it's important to evaluate carefully any symptoms that could be a sign of bladder or rectal cancer," says the senior study author.

New printable robots could self-assemble when heated

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:44 AM PDT

New algorithms and electronic components could enable printable robots that self-assemble when heated. Printable robots — those that can be assembled from parts produced by 3-D printers — have long been a topic of research in Computer Science labs at MIT. Now researchers introduce a new wrinkle on the idea: bakable robots.

Australia's deadly eruptions were reason for the first mass extinction

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:43 AM PDT

Ancient volcanic eruptions in Australia 510 million years ago significantly affected the climate, causing the first known mass extinction in the history of complex life. Scientists used radioactive dating techniques to precisely measure the age of the eruptions of the Kalkarindji volcanic province.

Can narcissists be moved to show empathy?

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:43 AM PDT

Researchers have investigated whether narcissists can elicit empathy for another person's suffering. It has been well documented that narcissists lack empathy, but why is that the case, and do they have the capacity to change that behavior? New research suggests that with the right focus, people with narcissistic tendencies can feel empathy for another person's suffering.

How developing neurons sense a chemical cue

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:43 AM PDT

New structural images help explain how young neurons make the right connections, showing how a signal, Netrin-1, interacts with specific receptors that tell neurons in which direction to reach. "Our work provides the first high-resolution view of the molecular complexes that form on the surface of a developing axon and tell it to move in one direction or another," says a structural biologist involved in the study. "This detailed understanding of these assemblies helps us better understand neural wiring, and may one day be useful in the development of drugs to treat spinal cord or brain injuries."

Quantum mechanisms of organic devices for alternative solar panels are revealed

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:17 AM PDT

Silicon panel-based technology requires a very costly, contaminating manufacturing process, while organic photovoltaic devices have been positioned as one of the most attractive alternatives as a source of solar energy. This is the first time the quantum mechanisms that trigger the photovoltaic function of these devices have been deciphered.

Stem cell therapy may help recondition lungs previously rejected for transplant

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:15 AM PDT

Stem cells therapy has been used to "recondition" abnormally functioning donor lungs that were deemed unusable for transplantion. This study could have implications for increasing the supply of suitable donor lungs. Nearly 1,650 people in the U.S. are awaiting lung transplants. Unfortunately, both domestically and abroad, the demand for donor lungs far outpaces the supply. The limited availability of donor lungs can lead to long delays before transplant, leaving patients to face a mortality rate of up to 40 percent while they wait.

Significant side effects experienced by BRCA mutation carriers following cancer risk-reducing surgical procedure

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:13 AM PDT

The majority of women with cancer causing BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations experience sexual dysfunction, menopausal symptoms, cognitive and stress issues, and poor sleep following prophylactic removal of their Fallopian tubes and ovaries -- a procedure known as risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) -- according to results of a new study.

Key protein factor linked to alcoholic fatty liver disease

Posted: 30 May 2014 09:13 AM PDT

A causative link between a key cell stress response pathway and alcoholic liver disease has been identified by researchers, advancing understanding of how this disease develops. The results demonstrate the first, clear and causative link between a key unfolded protein response and fatty liver disease.

Gene expression signature identifies patients at higher risk for cardiovascular death

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:27 AM PDT

A gene expression profile associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular death has been identified by a study of 338 patients with coronary artery disease. Used with other indicators such as biochemical markers and family history, the profile -- based on a simple blood test -- may help identify patients who could benefit from personalized treatment and counseling designed to address risk factors.

Hero or sissy? Study explores perception of injured athletes

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:27 AM PDT

NFL teams shoulder most of the blame for players' injuries and sports journalists can shift football cultural norms toward valuing players who put their health first. These are the key findings of a new study that examined health and safety issues in sports. "As sports journalists take more of an advocacy role and support athletes who make their health a priority, attitudes towards injuries and the players who sustain them may gradually begin to change," one co-author said.

X-ray pulses on demand from electron storage rings

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:27 AM PDT

Physicists recently devised a new method to pick single X-ray pulses out of the pulse trains usually emitted from synchrotron radiation facilities. The technique is very useful to support studies of electronic properties of quantum materials and superconductors and paves the way for future synchrotron facilities with variable pulse lengths.

Systolic, diastolic blood pressures predict risk of different cardiovascular diseases

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:26 AM PDT

Raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures may have different effects on different types of cardiovascular diseases and at different ages, according to new research involving 1.25 million patients from primary care practices. The new findings suggest that individuals with higher systolic blood pressures have a greater risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (stroke caused by bleeding within the brain tissue), subarachnoid haemorrhage (the deadliest form of stroke), and stable angina, whereas raised diastolic blood pressure is a better indicator of abdominal aortic aneurysm risk.

New 3-D representation of Richard III's spine shows 'spiral nature' of his scoliosis

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:26 AM PDT

Shakespeare may have characterized Richard III as a hunchback, but now everyone can explore the true shape of one of history's most famous spinal columns. A polymer reconstruction was photographed from 19 different points, and the pictures were then stitched together digitally to create the interactive 3-D model.

Mothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome have increased risk of early death

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:26 AM PDT

Mothers of daughters with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a significantly increased risk of death, particularly if they also have diabetes, when compared to the general population, according to new research. The researchers found that mothers aged over 60 had a risk of death that was one-and-a-half times greater than the general population. When compared with a control group of women with type 2 diabetes from the general population, diabetic mothers of PCOS daughters had a two-fold increased risk of death.

New global maps of livestock distribution

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:26 AM PDT

New global maps of livestock distribution have been established by an international team of researchers. This study should help to measure the socio-economic, public health and environmental impacts of livestock and poultry, worldwide. The evaluation of multiple socio-economic, environmental and public health around the livestock sector requires accurate accessible and comprehensive spatial data on the distribution and abundance of livestock.

Aircraft wings that change their shape in flight can help to protect the environment

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:26 AM PDT

A top priority for any airline is to conserve as much fuel as possible – and this helps to protect the environment. A new project aims to reduce kerosene consumption by six percent, and integrating flexible landing devices into aircraft wings is one step towards that target.

Researchers design a new structure that absorbs all sound

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:24 AM PDT

A new step toward the perfect acoustic absorber. Researchers have designed and experimentally evaluated in the laboratory a new structure made of conventional porous materials –- used in the construction industry -- that permit the complete absorption of sound at a wide range of frequencies.

One cell's meat is another cell's poison: How the loss of a cell protein favors cancer cells while harming healthy cells

Posted: 30 May 2014 06:24 AM PDT

As a new therapeutic approach, Janus kinases are currently in the limelight of cancer research. The focus of interest is the protein JAK2. By inhibiting this protein one tries to cure chronic bone marrow diseases, such as myelofibrosis and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

Depression, early death among seniors with diabetes: Strong link found by research

Posted: 29 May 2014 03:16 PM PDT

Depression is linked with a far greater chance for early death among adults 65 and older with diabetes compared with people of the same age who do not have depression, research shows. The researchers suggest that the higher mortality rate among those with depression could stem from the fact that depressed people are less likely than their non-depressed counterparts to adhere to their prescribed medications, diet, exercise and glucose self-monitoring.

Unexpected death of a loved one linked to onset of psychiatric disorders

Posted: 29 May 2014 12:41 PM PDT

The sudden loss of a loved one can trigger a variety of psychiatric disorders in people with no history of mental illness. While previous studies have suggested there is a link between sudden bereavement and an onset of common psychiatric disorders, this is the first study to show the association of acute bereavement and mania in a large population sample.

Caught by a hair: Quick, new identification of hair may help crime fighters

Posted: 29 May 2014 11:25 AM PDT

Crime fighters could have a new tool at their disposal. Researchers have developed a cutting-edge technique to identify human hair. Their test is quicker than DNA analysis techniques currently used by law enforcement. Early sample testing produced a 100 percent success rate. Blood samples are often used to identify gender and ethnicity, but blood can deteriorate quickly and can easily be contaminated. Hair, on the other hand, is very stable. Elements in hair originate from sweat secretions that alter with diet, ethnicity, gender, the environment and working conditions.

Early childhood stimulation intervention in Jamaica yields better pay in adulthood

Posted: 29 May 2014 11:23 AM PDT

Early childhood development programs are particularly important for disadvantaged children in Jamaica and can greatly impact an individual's ability to earn more money as an adult, new research finds.

When eradicating invasive species threatens endangered species recovery

Posted: 29 May 2014 11:23 AM PDT

Efforts to eradicate invasive species increasingly occur side by side with programs focused on recovery of endangered ones. But what should resource managers do when the eradication of an invasive species threatens an endangered species? In a new study, scientists examine that conundrum now taking place in the San Francisco Bay.

Cooperation learned through practice, according to a mathematical model

Posted: 29 May 2014 11:23 AM PDT

When we must choose between cooperating with others or betraying them, we are more likely to cooperate if they have acted like this with us or if we ourselves have behaved altruistically. We do so because learning reinforces what has gone well for us and not because we imitate successful people. These are the conclusions highlighted in a study based on the prisoner's dilemma, a popular model for studying conflict.

Think fast, robot: Algorithm that harnesses data from new sensor could make autonomous robots more nimble

Posted: 29 May 2014 08:20 AM PDT

One of the reasons we don't yet have self-driving cars and mini-helicopters delivering online purchases is that autonomous vehicles tend not to perform well under pressure. A system that can flawlessly parallel park at 5 mph may have trouble avoiding obstacles at 35 mph. Part of the problem is the time it takes to produce and interpret camera data. An autonomous vehicle using a standard camera to monitor its surroundings might take about a fifth of a second to update its location. That's good enough for normal operating conditions but not nearly fast enough to handle the unexpected.

Hoosier cavefish: New species from caves of southern Indiana has an anus right behind its head

Posted: 29 May 2014 08:20 AM PDT

A new eyeless cavefish is described from Indiana and named after the Indiana Hoosiers. It is the first new cavefish species described from the US in 40 years. Notably, it has an anus right behind its head, and the females brood their young in their gill chamber.

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