Κυριακή, 25 Μαΐου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Wound-healing role for microRNAs in colon offer new insight to inflammatory bowel diseases

Posted: 23 May 2014 11:53 AM PDT

A microRNA cluster believed to be important for suppressing colon cancer has been found to play a critical role in wound healing in the intestine, cancer researchers have found. The findings, first discovered in mice and later reproduced in human cells, could provide a fresh avenue for investigating chronic digestive diseases and for potentially repairing damage in these and other disease or injury settings.

Poor Diet Before Pregnancy Linked with Preterm Birth

Posted: 23 May 2014 11:51 AM PDT

For the first time, researchers have confirmed that women who eat a poor diet before they become pregnant are around 50% more likely to have a preterm birth than those on a healthy diet. The study shows that women who consistently ate a diet high in protein and fruit prior to becoming pregnant were less likely to have a preterm birth, while those who consistently ate high fat and sugar foods, and take-out food were about 50% more likely to have a preterm birth.

Breakthrough in RSV research to help infected children

Posted: 23 May 2014 06:43 AM PDT

A drug has been shown to safely reduce the viral load and clinical illness of healthy adult volunteers intranasally infected with respiratory syncytial virus. RSV is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children in the United States and worldwide. It hospitalizes 125,000 children in the United States each year, and has been the cause for 1.5 million outpatient visits.

Mapping atherosclerotic arteries: Combined approach developed

Posted: 23 May 2014 06:42 AM PDT

A new method allows calcified and constricted blood vessels to be visualized with micrometer precision, and can be used to design containers for targeted drug delivery. Within the project, materials scientists combined cutting-edge-imaging techniques to visualize and quantify the constrictions caused by atherosclerosis.

Body clock and its biological impact: Fruit fly research to provide new insight

Posted: 23 May 2014 06:41 AM PDT

How animals keep time through their internal circadian rhythms could help us understand why we sleep and how we cope with jet lag. Using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as an experimental model, researchers have discovered that the molecular and cellular 'clock' mechanisms of insects closely resemble those of mammals, including humans. As these biological clock systems not only control sleep, but also influence functions such as blood pressure and metabolic rate, they could give us greater insight into many medical conditions.

Many mental illnesses reduce life expectancy more than heavy smoking

Posted: 23 May 2014 05:29 AM PDT

Serious mental illnesses reduce life expectancy by 10-20 years, an analysis by psychiatrists has shown -- a loss of years that's equivalent to or worse than that for heavy smoking. Yet mental health has not seen the same public health priority, say the scientists, despite these stark figures and the similar prevalence of mental health problems.

Women with diabetes 44 percent more likely to develop coronary heart disease than men with diabetes, study of 850,000 people shows

Posted: 23 May 2014 05:29 AM PDT

Women with diabetes are 44 percent more likely to develop coronary heart disease than men with diabetes, shows a systematic review and meta-analysis of some 850,000 people. The data used in the study stretches back almost 50 years, from 1966 to 2011, and includes 64 studies, 858,507 people and 28,203 incident CHD events.

Healthcare professionals must be aware of rarer causes of headaches in pregnancy

Posted: 23 May 2014 05:29 AM PDT

Most headaches in pregnancy and the postnatal period are benign, but healthcare professionals must be alert to the rarer and more severe causes of headaches, suggests a new review. There are 85 different types of headache. Approximately 90% of headaches in pregnancy are migraine or tension-type headaches. However, pregnancy can lead to an increased risk of certain secondary headaches, a headache caused by an underlying health condition, states the review.

New sensor could light the way forward in low-cost medical imaging

Posted: 23 May 2014 05:29 AM PDT

A new type of light sensor that could allow medical and security imaging via low cost cameras has been developed by researchers. Near infrared light can be used to perform non-invasive medical procedures, such as measuring the oxygen level in tissue and detecting tumors. It is also already commonly used in security camera systems and for quality control in the agriculture and food industry.

Kidney dialysis machine invented for babies, safely treat newborn with multiple organ failure in world first breakthrough

Posted: 23 May 2014 05:28 AM PDT

A miniaturized kidney dialysis machine capable of treating the smallest babies has been invented, and for the first time, it has been used to safely treat a newborn baby with multiple organ failure. This technology has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of infants with acute kidney injury, according to new research published.

Bacterial adaptation contributes to pneumococcal threat in sickle cell disease patients

Posted: 23 May 2014 05:25 AM PDT

Differences in the genetic code of pneumococcal bacteria have been identified by researcher that may explain why it poses such a risk to children with sickle cell disease and why current vaccines don't provide better protection against the infection. The findings will aid efforts to improve vaccine effectiveness and inform research into new ways to protect young sickle cell disease patients from life-threatening pneumococcal infections that can lead to pneumonia, meningitis, bloodstream infections and other problems.

One-third of all brain aneurysms rupture: size is not a significant risk factor

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

Approximately one third of all brain aneurysms rupture during a patient's lifetime, resulting in a brain haemorrhage. A recent study demonstrates that, unlike what was previously assumed, the size of the aneurysm does not significantly impact the risk of rupture. The total number of individual risk factors is more important. Smoking, for example, increases the risk for ruptures, particularly in women.

Pattern of cognitive risks in some children with cochlear implants identified by researchers

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

Children with profound deafness who receive a cochlear implant had as much as five times the risk of having delays in areas of working memory, controlled attention, planning and conceptual learning as children with normal hearing, according research. The authors evaluated 73 children implanted before age 7 and 78 children with normal hearing to determine the risk of deficits in executive functioning behaviors in everyday life.

Protein that may lead to malaria vaccine discovered

Posted: 22 May 2014 11:14 AM PDT

A protein that is essential for malaria-causing parasites to escape from inside red blood cells has been discovered by scientists. This protein could lead to the development of a vaccine that would prevent the progression of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which kills one child every 15 seconds each year in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, according to new research.

Cell migration and the mysterious role of cadherin

Posted: 22 May 2014 10:34 AM PDT

Fruit-fly ovaries were used in a new study to uncover how E-cadherin guides collective cell migration. According to traditional scientific dogma, E-cadherin acts like the mortar between bricks, holding cells together and preventing motility. This research team found the opposite: Cadherin is actually promoting the ability of cells to move and migrate. "It's doing it in three different ways in three different parts of the cell," the lead investigator said. "In each spot in the cell, cadherin is doing something different and all of those function together to orchestrate the movement of cells."

Antibiotic crisis needs united global response, experts say

Posted: 22 May 2014 10:34 AM PDT

Growing resistance to antibiotics and other drugs demands a coordinated global response on the same scale as efforts to address climate change, say experts. Without an international commitment to tackle the issue, the world faces a future in which simple infections that have been treatable for decades become deadly diseases, they warn.

Stem cell development: Experts offer insight into basic mechanisms of stem cell differentiation

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:35 AM PDT

The world has great expectations that stem cell research one day will revolutionize medicine. But in order to exploit the potential of stem cells, we need to understand how their development is regulated. Now researchers report a new discovery that provides valuable insight into basic mechanisms of stem cell differentiation. The discovery could lead to new ways of making stem cells develop into exactly the type of cells that a physician may need for treating a disease.

One molecule blocks both pain and itch, discovered in mouse study

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:35 AM PDT

An antibody that simultaneously blocks the sensations of pain and itching has been found in studies with mice. The new antibody works by targeting the voltage-sensitive sodium channels in the cell membrane of neurons. "We hope our discovery will garner interest from pharmaceutical companies that can help us expand our studies into clinical trials," said one researcher.

Cells: RaDAR guides proteins into the nucleus

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:34 AM PDT

A novel pathway by which proteins are actively and specifically shuttled into the nucleus of a cell has been discovered by scientists. The finding captures a precise molecular barcode that flags proteins for such import and describes the biochemical interaction that drives this critically important process. The discovery could help illuminate the molecular dysfunction that underpins a broad array of ailments, ranging from autoimmune diseases to cancers.

Supportive tumor tissue surrounding cancer cells hinders, rather than helps, pancreatic cancer

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:33 AM PDT

Fibrous tissue long suspected of making pancreatic cancer worse actually supports an immune attack that slows tumor progression but cannot overcome it, scientists report. The team's findings point to a potential new avenue for guiding treatment, including immunotherapy, and offer an explanation for the failure of a promising combination drug approach in clinical trials.

Genes discovered linking circadian clock with eating schedule

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:33 AM PDT

For most people, the urge to eat a meal or snack comes at a few, predictable times during the waking part of the day. But for those with a rare syndrome, hunger comes at unwanted hours, interrupts sleep and causes overeating. "We really never expected that we would be able to decouple the sleep-wake cycle and the eating cycle," says the senior study author. "It opens up a whole lot of future questions about how these cycles are regulated."

Safety in numbers: Moderate drinking in a group reduces attraction to risk

Posted: 22 May 2014 07:51 AM PDT

Individuals who have consumed moderate amounts of alcohol in social situations are likely to view risky situations with greater caution when considering them as part of a group, new research shows. The research produced the first evidence found outside of laboratory conditions that being in a group can reduce some effects of alcohol consumption. The findings could lead to the design of new interventions designed to promote safer recreational drinking.

How the 'gut feeling' shapes fear

Posted: 22 May 2014 07:48 AM PDT

We are all familiar with that uncomfortable feeling in our stomach when faced with a threatening situation. By studying rats, researchers have been able to prove for the first time that our 'gut instinct' has a significant impact on how we react to fear. An unlit, deserted car park at night, footsteps in the gloom. The heart beats faster and the stomach ties itself in knots. We often feel threatening situations in our stomachs. While the brain has long been viewed as the center of all emotions, researchers are increasingly trying to get to the bottom of this proverbial gut instinct.

Molecule acts as umpire to make tough life-or-death calls

Posted: 22 May 2014 07:47 AM PDT

An enzyme required for animal survival after birth functions like an umpire, making the tough calls required for a balanced response to signals that determine if cells live or die, researchers have discovered. The finding has established RIPK1's premier role in cell survival as inhibition of apoptosis and necroptosis. The results also demonstrated that other pathways must exist in cells to maintain a balanced response to signals pushing for cell death via apoptosis or necroptosis.

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