Παρασκευή, 23 Μαΐου 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News


Male, female sex cell determination requires lifelong maintenance, protection

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

The way in which the sex of an organism is determined may require lifelong maintenance, finds new research. Sex-specific transcription factors perform lifelong work to maintain sexual determination and protect against reprogramming of cells from one sex to the other. Using a mouse model, researchers found the sex of gonadal cells -- those found in the ovaries or testes -- require maintenance throughout life. This research also showed loss of a single transcription factor can result in the transformation of male cells into female cells.

Repeated sexual assault victims report more psychological problems than previously thought

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

One in five adult women and one in 100 adult men have reported being raped. The prevalence increases to two in five among women and one in five among men who report experiencing other forms of sexual violence, such as repeated unwanted sexual contact and sexual coercion. Now, researchers have determined that those victims who are repeatedly assaulted, show greater levels of psycho-behavioral consequences than earlier thought.

Promising discovery in fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

A small molecule that prevents bacteria from forming into biofilms, a frequent cause of infections, has been discovered by researchers. The anti-biofilm peptide works on a range of bacteria including many that cannot be treated by antibiotics. "Currently there is a severe problem with antibiotic-resistant organisms," says the lead author of the study. "Our entire arsenal of antibiotics is gradually losing effectiveness."

Block autophagy in multiple cancers: Trials show promise

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

The malaria drug hydroxychloroquine blocked autophagy in a host of aggressive cancers -- glioblastoma, melanoma, lymphoma and myeloma, renal and colon cancers -- and in some cases helped stabilize disease. These results come from the largest group of results to date, and show promise for the treatment of cancer in the future.

Lifestyle changes improve biomarkers for breast cancer recurrence, mortality

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

Lifestyle changes in the form of healthy eating and regular exercise can decrease biomarkers related to breast cancer recurrence and mortality, a pair of interventional studies involving breast cancer survivors has found. "The findings of both studies support a growing body of research that suggests lifestyle interventions lower biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence and mortality, and improve quality of life," said one expert.

Kidney transplantation found superior to intensive home hemodialysis

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

Kidney transplant patients had a reduced risk of treatment failure or premature death compared with patients on long and frequent home hemodialysis. Kidney transplant patients had a higher risk of being hospitalized within the first several months to a year, but they had a reduced risk over the long term.

Patients with a certain form of kidney disease may have reduced risk of cancer

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

After adjusting for demographic differences between kidney transplant recipients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and other kidney transplant recipients, PKD patients were 16 percent less likely to develop cancer than others who received a kidney transplant. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a kidney disorder passed down through families in which many cysts form in the kidneys, causing them to become enlarged. It's thought to have cancer-like features, but cancer risk has never been compared between PKD patients and others with kidney disease.

Biofilm defense: Mechanisms and actions of a new class of broad-spectrum antimicrobials

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:57 PM PDT

Last month WHO issued a report that warned of an increase of antimicrobial-resistance and the renewed threat of bacterial infections world-wide and called for a concerted effort to develop new and better antimicrobial drugs. A new study reveals how a new type of antimicrobial substance interferes with biofilms formed by several dangerous bacteria.

Signals found that recruit host animals' cells, enabling breast cancer metastasis

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:56 PM PDT

Chemical signals that certain breast cancers use to recruit two types of normal cells needed for the cancers' spread have been discovered in mice, researchers report. "If a drug can be found that safely blocks the same signal in humans, it could be a very useful addition to current breast cancer treatment -- particularly for patients with chemotherapy-resistant tumors," says one researcher.

People with low incomes less likely to use healthy weight loss strategies

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:52 PM PDT

Poorer people of all ages are less likely than wealthier ones to follow recommended strategies for weight loss, finds a recent study. "We found that compared to persons of higher household incomes, both youths and adults of lower household incomes were less likely to use strategies that are consistent with U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommendations," which include reducing fats and sweets and increasing exercise, said the lead author.

Common obesity gene contributes to weight gain

Posted: 22 May 2014 02:52 PM PDT

A gene commonly linked to obesity -— FTO —- contributes to weight gain, researchers have demonstrated. The study shows that variations in FTO indirectly affect the function of the primary cilium, a little-understood hair-like appendage on brain and other cells. Specific abnormalities of cilium molecules, in turn, increase body weight, in some instances, by affecting the function of receptors for leptin, a hormone that suppresses appetite. The findings, made in mice, suggest that it might be possible to modify obesity through interventions that alter the function of the cilium.

Despite economic blows, infant health has improved among US poor

Posted: 22 May 2014 12:22 PM PDT

Infant health has steadily improved among the United States' most disadvantaged groups, despite worsening economic conditions for those at the bottom. Researchers cite targeted programs and policies as the driving forces behind such marked improvement. Disadvantaged mothers have poorer health than their advantaged peers. They are more likely to smoke, drink alcohol and use illicit drugs. They typically have worse underlying health, and are more likely to have preexisting conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Likewise, they are more susceptible to diseases, such as influenza. All of these health factors significantly increase the likelihood of delivering low-birth-weight babies.

Delegating dirty work is key to evolution: Working cells allow organisms to evolve

Posted: 22 May 2014 11:14 AM PDT

We have hundreds of types of cells in our bodies -- everything from red blood cells to hair follicles to neurons. But why can't most of them create offspring for us? New research suggests that separating germ cells -- sperm and eggs -- from somatic cells -- all other cells -- preserves the genetic building blocks while allowing organisms to flourish in a somewhat hazardous environment.

Fruit flies show mark of intelligence in thinking before they act, study suggests

Posted: 22 May 2014 11:14 AM PDT

Fruit flies 'think' before they act, a study suggests. Neuroscientists showed that fruit flies take longer to make more difficult decisions. In experiments asking fruit flies to distinguish between ever closer concentrations of an odor, the researchers found that the flies don't act instinctively or impulsively. Instead they appear to accumulate information before committing to a choice.

Key mechanism in metabolic pathway that fuels cancers identified

Posted: 22 May 2014 11:13 AM PDT

A significant step in cracking the code of an atypical metabolic pathway that allows certain cancerous tumors to thrive has been cracked, providing a possible roadmap for defeating such cancers. "With this finding, we have learned there are particular enzymes that work together to enable the reverse pathway to function, much like the tiny gears that turn in opposite directions to power a mechanical clock," commented the lead author.

New details on microtubules and how the anti-cancer drug Taxol works

Posted: 22 May 2014 10:34 AM PDT

Images of microtubule assembly and disassembly have been produced by researchers at the unprecedented resolution of 5 angstroms, providing new insight into the success of the anti-cancer drug Taxol and pointing the way to possible improvements. "This is the first experimental demonstration of the link between nucleotide state and tubulin conformation within the microtubules and, by extension, the relationship between tubulin conformation and the transition from assembled to disassembled microtubule structure," says a biophysicist on the study.

Neurostimulation: What is being said in the media, academic literature? Better acceptance, it seems

Posted: 22 May 2014 10:34 AM PDT

Neurostimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have gradually gained favor in the public eye over the past decade. In a new report, ethics experts raise important questions about the rising tide of tDCS coverage in the media, while regulatory action is lacking and ethical issues need to be addressed.

'I can' mentality goes long way after childbirth

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:35 AM PDT

The way a woman feels about tackling everyday physical activities, including exercise, may be a predictor of how much weight she'll retain years after childbirth says a professor. A study followed 56 women during pregnancy and measured their physical activity levels, along with barriers to exercise and the ability to overcome them. Six years later, the research team followed up with more than half of the participants and found that the women who considered themselves less able to take on these barriers had retained more of their pregnancy weight. Top barriers identified in the study included time, motivation and childcare issues.

Blocking pain receptors extends lifespan, boosts metabolism in mice

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:35 AM PDT

Chronic pain is known to shorten lifespan, and pain tends to increase with age. But is there a relationship between pain and longevity? Researchers have found that mice lacking the capsaicin pain receptor live around 14 percent longer than other mice, and they retain a more youthful metabolism as well. Receptor blockers could not only relieve pain, but increase lifespan, improve metabolic health and help diabetics and the obese.

Computer models helping unravel the science of life? How cells of the fruit fly react to changes in the environment

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:35 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a sophisticated computer modelling simulation to explore how cells of the fruit fly react to changes in the environment. The model shows how cells of the fruit fly communicate with each other during its development.

Gene behind unhealthy adipose tissue identified

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:35 AM PDT

A gene driving the development of pernicious adipose tissue in humans has been identified by researchers for the first time. The findings imply that the gene may constitute a risk factor promoting the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. "Our findings represent an important step forward in the understanding of how adipose tissue links to the development of metabolic disease," comments one of the principal investigators.

Safe alternatives to BPA: New technology may help identify

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:34 AM PDT

Numerous studies have linked exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in plastic, receipt paper, toys, and other products with various health problems from poor growth to cancer, and the FDA has been supporting efforts to find and use alternatives. But are these alternatives safer? Researchers have developed new tests that can classify such compounds' activity with great detail and speed. The advance could offer a fast and cost-effective way to identify safe replacements for BPA.

HIV-positive children more likely to develop drug resistance

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:33 AM PDT

74 percent of HIV-positive children in a study developed resistance to at least one form of drug treatment. The researchers followed almost 450 children enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, one of the largest studies of HIV-positive children in the United States. "The problem with drug resistance is that once you develop it, it never goes away," said the principal investigator. "Some patients with very resistant virus have no effective treatment options. Resistant virus is the major reason for death among youth with perinatal HIV."

Some pancreatic cancer treatments may be going after wrong targets

Posted: 22 May 2014 09:33 AM PDT

New research represents a significant change in the understanding of how pancreatic cancer grows – and how it might be defeated. Unlike other types of cancer, pancreatic cancer produces a lot of scar tissue and inflammation. For years, researchers believed that this scar tissue, called desmoplasia, helped the tumor grow, and they've designed treatments to attack this. But new research finds that when you eliminate desmoplasia, tumors grow even more quickly and aggressively. In the study, mice in which the desmoplasia was eliminated developed tumors earlier and died sooner.

Putting a number on opinion dynamics in a population

Posted: 22 May 2014 08:58 AM PDT

Opinion formation in a large population is influenced by both endogenous factors, such as interaction with one's peers, as well as exogenous factors, such as the media. In a recent paper, authors use a mathematical model to study the process of information assimilation in a population resulting from such exogenous inputs.

Screening for autism: There's an app for that

Posted: 22 May 2014 08:57 AM PDT

Software to help interpret videotaped behaviors of infants during autism screening tests has been developed by researchers. The program's accuracy proved equal to autism experts and better than both non-expert medical clinicians and students in training. "The great benefit of the video and software is for general practitioners who do not have the trained eye to look for subtle early warning signs of autism," said one researcher involved in the study.

Islamic education and violence: Not inextricably linked

Posted: 22 May 2014 08:56 AM PDT

Islamic Jihad has become a term which conjures scenes of terror and acts of violent destruction in the name of holy war.  Is this the true meaning of Jihad?  A new article explores how Islamic education and Jihad could and should be a pathway to peace.

Drug-target database lets researchers match old drugs to new uses

Posted: 22 May 2014 07:51 AM PDT

There are thousands of drugs that silence many thousands of cancer-causing genetic abnormalities. Some of these drugs are in use now, but many of these drugs are sitting on shelves or could be used beyond the disease for which they were originally approved. Repurposing these drugs depends on matching drugs to targets. A study recently published describes a new database and pattern-matching algorithm that allows researchers to evaluate rational drugs and drug combinations, and also recommends a new drug combination to treat drug-resistant non-small cell lung cancer.

Medical students may benefit from social media guidance

Posted: 22 May 2014 07:51 AM PDT

Medical students use social media extensively, but medical schools may need to offer more guidance in potential pitfalls, according researchers. "We assessed how medical students engage with social media platforms like Facebook and found that they have a pretty sophisticated understanding of its risks and benefits," said one researcher. Two reports outline findings from a survey of 2,109 medical students.

Pathology of Sanfilippo A syndrome: Research provides more insight

Posted: 22 May 2014 07:51 AM PDT

Sanfilippo A syndrome is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disease inherited from the parents of the patient. Lysosomes are the body's vehicle for breaking down many of its by-products such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids and cellular debris. New research advances the knowledge of the structural features of sulfamidase in the context of this illness, and will greatly facilitate the discovery of suitable compounds and drugs to assist in managing the disease and its debilitating effects.

Bipolar disease in children, adolescents: Discharge rates much higher in the US compared to UK

Posted: 22 May 2014 07:50 AM PDT

A significantly higher discharge rate for pediatric bipolar in children and adolescents aged 1-19 years has been found in the US compared to England. "The finding that the disparity between US and English discharge rates for PBD is markedly greater than the disparity for child psychiatric discharge rates overall, and for adult rates for bipolar disorder, is potentially important. However, the study design does not allow us to answer the question whether US clinicians are too liberal in assigning the diagnosis of bipolar disorder to youth or, alternatively, whether English clinicians fail to recognize or diagnose these illnesses. It is clear that the reasons for the disparity in the case of PBD warrant further study," the lead author says.

Alcoholism treatment: Kappa opioid receptors a new target

Posted: 22 May 2014 07:50 AM PDT

The list of brain receptor targets for opiates reads like a fraternity: Mu Delta Kappa. The mu opioid receptor is the primary target for morphine and endogenous opioids like endorphin, whereas the delta opioid receptor shows the highest affinity for endogenous enkephalins. The kappa opioid receptor is very interesting, but the least understood of the opiate receptor family.

Stem-cell research: A new genetic switching element

Posted: 22 May 2014 07:48 AM PDT

Every cell contains stored hereditary information, encoded in the sequence of nucleobases that make up its DNA. However, in any given cell type, only a fraction of this information is actually used. Which genes are activated and which are turned off is in part determined by a second tier of information which is superimposed on the nucleotide sequences that provide the blueprints for protein synthesis. This so-called epigenetic level of control is based on the localized, and in principle reversible, attachment of simple chemical tags to specific nucleotides in the genome. Slight modifications in genome sequences play a crucial role in the conversion of pluripotent stem cells into various differentiated cell types.

Inexpensive food a key factor in rising obesity

Posted: 22 May 2014 04:47 AM PDT

An important factor fueling the obesity epidemic has been identified by a new review: Americans now have the cheapest food available in history. Today, two in three Americans are overweight or obese, with rates climbing steadily over the past several decades. Many factors have been suggested as causes: snack food, automobiles, television, fast food, computer use, vending machines, suburban housing developments, and portion size. But after examining available evidence, the authors say widespread availability of inexpensive food appears to have the strongest link to obesity.

Could cannabis active substance curb seizures? Experts weed through evidence

Posted: 22 May 2014 04:47 AM PDT

The therapeutic potential of medical marijuana and pure cannabidiol (CBD), an active substance in the cannabis plant, for neurologic conditions is highly debated. A series of articles examine the potential use of medical marijuana and CBD in treating severe forms of epilepsy such as Dravet syndrome.

New insights into premature ejaculation could lead to better diagnosis, treatment

Posted: 22 May 2014 04:47 AM PDT

There are many misconceptions and unknowns about premature ejaculation in the medical community and the general population. Two new papers provide much-needed answers that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment for affected men. Premature ejaculation can cause significant personal and interpersonal distress to a man and his partner. While it has been recognized as a syndrome for well over 100 years, the clinical definition of premature ejaculation has been vague, ambiguous, and lacking in objective and quantitative criteria.

New way to combat drug resistance in skin cancer found

Posted: 22 May 2014 04:42 AM PDT

Rapid resistance to vemurafenib – a treatment for a type of advanced melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer – could be prevented by blocking a druggable family of proteins, according to research. Scientists have revealed the MLK family of four enzymes 'undoes' the tumour-shrinking effects of vemurafenib.

Parents 'need to be convinced' to let children walk to school

Posted: 21 May 2014 06:11 PM PDT

Parents need to be convinced about the benefits of their children walking or cycling to school as much as the children themselves, according to research. A study of children's habits in commuting to and from school discovered that, in the vast majority of cases, parents were the main decision makers in how the children traveled.

Protective proteins reduce damage to blood vessels

Posted: 21 May 2014 03:00 PM PDT

Proteins found in our blood can reduce damage caused to blood vessels as we age, and in conditions such as atherosclerosis and arthritis, new research finds. Calcification is a major risk factor for heart attack and stroke. Blood vessels can harden as calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals, normally found in bones and teeth, build up in soft tissue as we age or as a result of illness. This can lead to complications in patients with atherosclerosis, a major cause of death whereby arteries thicken and are at risk of becoming blocked.

Training brain patterns of empathy using functional brain imaging

Posted: 21 May 2014 03:00 PM PDT

An unprecedented research conducted by a group of neuroscientists has demonstrated that it is possible to train brain patterns associated with empathic feelings. Volunteers who received neurofeedback about their own brain activity patterns whilst being scanned inside a functional magnetic resonance machine were able to increase empathic brain states. These findings could open new possibilities for treatment of clinical situations, such as antisocial personality disorder and postpartum depression.

Peripheral artery disease: Home-based walking program eases clogged leg arteries

Posted: 21 May 2014 03:00 PM PDT

A home-based exercise program helped people with clogged leg arteries walk farther and faster. Supervised exercise for peripheral artery disease is not usually covered by insurance and is inaccessible for many people with this painful condition. Physicians should recommend walking even if their patients don't have access to a supervised exercise program.

Misguided DNA-repair proteins caught in the act

Posted: 21 May 2014 02:59 PM PDT

Accumulation of DNA damage can cause aggressive forms of cancer and accelerated aging, so the body's DNA repair mechanisms are normally key to good health. However, in some diseases the DNA repair machinery can become harmful. Scientists have discovered some of the key proteins involved in one type of DNA repair gone awry.

Disruption of circadian rhythms may contribute to inflammatory disease

Posted: 21 May 2014 02:59 PM PDT

A disruption of circadian rhythms, when combined with a high-fat, high-sugar diet, may contribute to inflammatory bowel disease and other harmful conditions, according to a recent study. "Circadian rhythms, which impose a 24-hour cycle on our bodies, are different from sleep patterns," the first author of the study explained. "Sleep is a consequence of circadian rhythms." While circadian rhythm disruption may be common among some, the research suggests that it may be contributing to a host of diseases.

New neural pathway found in eyes that aids in vision

Posted: 21 May 2014 01:27 PM PDT

A less-well-known type of retina cell plays a more critical role in vision than previously understood. Working with mice, the scientists found that the ipRGCs -- an atypical type of photoreceptor in the retina -- help detect contrast between light and dark, a crucial element in the formation of visual images. The key to the discovery is the fact that the cells express melanopsin, a type of photopigment that undergoes a chemical change when it absorbs light.

Weak chemical forces combined to strengthen novel imaging technology

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:38 AM PDT

Increasing the effectiveness of certain contrast agents is often used for imaging blood vessels and internal bleeding by associating them with nanoparticles, biomedical researchers report. The contrast agent being used is packaged inside or bonded to the surface of microscopic particles, which can be designed to target certain regions of the body or prolong the agent's activity.

Pain care curriculum improves clinical skills

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:38 AM PDT

An online training module designed for the evaluation and care of chronic pain greatly improved medical student clinical skills, according to a report. The module uses an elderly woman with chronic lower back pain as a case study. Chronic pain affects approximately 100 million Americans, costing up to $635 billion in medical treatment and lost productivity and contributing to poor quality of life. Yet, pain treatment is not taught extensively in many health professional schools.

Environmental changes connected to spike in infectious disease, study shows

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:38 AM PDT

Anthropogenic changes in Africa's Lake Malaui are a driving force behind the increase of urogenital schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease caused by parasitic flatworms. In some villages along Lake Malaui, 73 percent of people and up to 94 percent of schoolchildren are infected. The research suggests the spike in infection is linked to an increase in human populations and agricultural activities near Lake Malaui.

Functional nerve cells from skin cells

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:37 AM PDT

Research will make the study of diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's easier, and could lead to personalized therapies for a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The nerve cells generated by this new method show the same functional characteristics as the mature cells found in the body, making them much better models for the study of age-related diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and for the testing of new drugs.

Low IQ students learn to read at 1st-grade level after persistent, intensive instruction

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:37 AM PDT

Children identified as intellectually disabled or low IQ learned to read at a first-grade level after persistent, intensive instruction from a scientifically based curriculum, a study shows. The findings of the pioneering four-year study raise expectations for all struggling readers, said the lead author. "We shouldn't give up on anybody. These children can learn not only functional skills, but reading as well, giving each one a shot at a more independent life."

Breakthrough: Nasal spray may soon replace pills for delivering drugs to the brain

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:36 AM PDT

When the doctor gives us medicine, it is often in the shape of a pill. But when it comes to brain diseases, pills are actually an extremely inefficient way to deliver drugs to the brain, and according to researchers, we need to find new and more efficient ways of transporting drugs to the brain. Spraying the patient's nose could be one such way.

New target for chronic pain treatment found

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:35 AM PDT

The enzyme PIP5K1C controls the activity of cellular receptors that signal pain, researchers have found. By reducing the enzyme, researchers showed that levels of a lipid called PIP2 is also lessened. They also found a compound that can dampen the activity of PIP5K1C. These findings could lead to a new kind of pain reliever for the more than 100 million people who suffer from chronic pain in the US.

Personalizing revascularization strategy for STEMI patients is vital

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:33 AM PDT

The role of the two most valuable strategies to save the lives of ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) patients has been a hot topic among experts of late: primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus thrombolysis. Both of these are effective treatments that actively save lives, and when there is no option for primary percutaneous coronary intervention, thrombolysis is the way to proceed, they have now agreed.

Evaluating 'acquired immunity' may improve estimates of infectious disease risk

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:31 AM PDT

A new health study that accounts for "acquired immunity" when evaluating the risk of microbial illness from food or environmental exposures suggests that some current approaches may significantly overestimate their role in causing such illnesses. Immune status is a major factor in susceptibility to foodborne and environmental infectious diseases. By considering both the impact of acquired immunity to a pathogen and the amount of a pathogen to which people are exposed, researchers have developed a novel approach for more accurately assessing the potential health risks of infectious diseases.

Soil bacteria may provide clues to curbing antibiotic resistance

Posted: 21 May 2014 10:31 AM PDT

Bacteria that naturally live in the soil have a vast collection of genes to fight off antibiotics, but they are much less likely to share these genes, a new study has revealed. Drug-resistant bacteria annually sicken 2 million Americans and kill at least 23,000. A driving force behind this growing public health threat is the ability of bacteria to share genes that provide antibiotic resistance.

Dolutegravir in HIV-1 infection: Added benefit in adult patients

Posted: 21 May 2014 07:20 AM PDT

Adults without pretreatment and adults with pretreatment for whom an integrase inhibitor is mandatory have fewer side effects under dolutegravir than under the comparator therapy. No added benefit could be determined for pretreated adults who do not require INIs (i. e. in whom no integrase inhibitor is indicated) and for adolescents above 12 years of age, because there were no study data.

Lipid transport: Research breakthrough paves way for understanding serious diseases

Posted: 21 May 2014 07:20 AM PDT

New basic research reveals how the body's cells transport lipid. Defects in the mechanism can lead to serious neurological diseases, liver diseases and involuntary childlessness, and the new knowledge is an important step on the way to understanding and treating these diseases.

Device for stopping uncontrolled seizures implanted in patient

Posted: 21 May 2014 07:18 AM PDT

Last month the first hospital outside of a clinical trial site implanted a pacemaker-like device in the brain of a patient. This may be a game-changer for patients with epilepsy. The device, called the RNS System, was implanted April 17, 2014 in a patient with seizures that previously could not be controlled with medication, or intractable epilepsy. The patient has recovered completely from the surgery.

Could Carbon Monoxide Protect Against Anesthesia-Induced Neuroapoptosis?

Posted: 21 May 2014 07:18 AM PDT

Basic science research suggests a promising, if surprising, method to protect against anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity: subclinical carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation, according to a new report. Low concentrations of CO limit apoptosis after isoflurane exposure in immature mice, through a mechanism of cytochrome c peroxidase inhibition.

New anticancer compound discovered

Posted: 21 May 2014 06:49 AM PDT

A previously unknown Cent-1 molecule that kills cancer cells has been discovered by scientists. The objective of the research was to accelerate the drug development process by identifying new compounds that would possess similar binding properties and cellular phenotype, but a different chemical structure, as the selected drugs in clinical use or investigational compounds in development. The scientists combined computer-based screening and cell-based assays to create a method that can significantly accelerate drug discovery and thereby lower development costs.

In your genes: Family history reveals predisposition to multiple diseases

Posted: 21 May 2014 06:49 AM PDT

Nine simple questions can be used to identify people who may be at increased risk of various cancers, heart disease and diabetes because of their family history of these conditions, research shows. The family history screening questionnaire can be used to provide insight into people's susceptibility to breast, ovarian, bowel and prostate cancer, melanoma, ischaemic heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

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