Κυριακή, 18 Μαΐου 2014

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


Biomarker test for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy could help reduce death after giving birth

Posted: 17 May 2014 05:58 AM PDT

Cardiologists have discovered biomarkers that can be used to develop a screening test to detect Peripartum Cardiomyopathy (PPCM), a life-threatening disorder that is the primary cause of mortality in pregnant women in developing countries. The results can lead to the immediate treatment of PPCM in new mothers and a significant reduction in mortality.

Poor diuretic response associated with worse clinical outcomes

Posted: 17 May 2014 05:58 AM PDT

Poor diuretic response is associated with worse in-hospital and post-discharge clinical outcomes, results of the a trial reveal. The study also found that serelaxin has a neutral effect on diuretic response. The trial was a double blind, placebo-controlled trial of 1161 patients admitted to hospital with acute heart failure. Patients were randomized to receive 48-hour infusions of placebo or serelaxin (30µg/kg per day) within 16 hours from presentation. Primary analysis of the study showed that serelaxin reduced dyspnoea and decreased 180 day mortality.

Targeting heart failure may reduce readmissions, save lives, studies find

Posted: 17 May 2014 05:58 AM PDT

Worsening symptoms and signs of heart failure (HF) in patients admitted to a hospital is a common sign of treatment failure and can lead to long-term consequences for the patient, including longer length of hospitalization and a higher risk for readmission and death, according to a recent study. Heart failure is the most common reason for admission to hospital in people over 65 years old and affects millions of people each year.

Negative iron balance predicts acute heart failure survival

Posted: 17 May 2014 05:58 AM PDT

Negative iron balance predicts survival in patients with acute heart failure, according to research. "Patients with acute heart failure have a major collapse in homeostasis. Iron is a key micronutrient that is required for the maintenance of homeostasis. Iron is needed for cellular metabolism and deficiency leads to severely impaired energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction," the first author said.

Sleeping pills increase cardiovascular events in heart failure patients

Posted: 17 May 2014 05:58 AM PDT

Sleeping pills increase the risk of cardiovascular events in heart failure patients by 8-fold, according to research. The investigators concluded: "Our results need confirmation in larger, prospective studies before heart failure patients can be advised to stop taking sleeping pills. But (some) patients who use sleeping pills, particularly those who have sleep disordered breathing, should be carefully monitored."

Five lung transplants performed at hospital in 24 hours

Posted: 17 May 2014 05:58 AM PDT

Five successful lung transplants were performed at one American hospital in just over 24 hours. Put in perspective, five is the average number of lung transplants performed each day throughout the entire country. The patients, all doing well, are a teacher, a judge, an executive director, a grandmother and an extraordinary young woman who beat very long odds to undergo a second lung transplant in three years.

Methadone programs can be key in educating, treating Hepatitis C patients

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:33 PM PDT

People who inject drugs and are enrolled in a drug treatment program are receptive to education about, and treatment for, hepatitis C virus, according to a study. That finding will be welcome news to health care providers. The paper notes that injection drug use is a primary mode of infection, making for an HCV infection prevalence as high as 80 percent among people who inject drugs.

Cognitive behavioral or relaxation training helps women reduce distress during breast cancer treatment

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:33 PM PDT

Can psychological intervention help women adapt to the stresses of breast cancer? It appears that a brief, five-week psychological intervention can have beneficial effects for women who are dealing with the stresses of breast cancer diagnosis and surgery. Intervening during this early period after surgery may reduce women's distress and providing cognitive or relaxation skills for stress management to help them adapt to treatment.

Ataluren Phase 3 trial results in nonsense mutation cystic fibrosis

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:33 PM PDT

The results of a Phase 3 study of ataluren in patients with nonsense mutation cystic fibrosis have been published, demonstrating positive trends in both the primary endpoint, lung function as measured by relative change in percent predicted FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and in the secondary outcome measure, rate of pulmonary exacerbations.

Herpes-loaded stem cells used to kill brain tumors

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:33 PM PDT

A potential solution for how to more effectively kill tumor cells using cancer-killing viruses has been discovered by researchers. The investigators report that trapping virus-loaded stem cells in a gel and applying them to tumors significantly improved survival in mice with glioblastoma multiform, the most common brain tumor in human adults and also the most difficult to treat.

Lighting the way to graphene-based devices

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:33 PM PDT

A technique whereby semiconductors made from graphene and boron nitride can be charge-doped to alter their electronic properties using only visible light has been demonstrated by researchers. Graphene continues to reign as the next potential superstar material for the electronics industry, a slimmer, stronger and much faster electron conductor than silicon.

Ground breaking hip and stem cell surgery completed using 3D-printed implant

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:33 PM PDT

Doctors and scientists have completed their first hip surgery with a 3D-printed implant and bone stem cell graft. The 3D printed hip, made from titanium, was designed using the patient's CT scan and CAD CAM (computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing) technology, meaning it was designed to the patient's exact specifications and measurements. The implant will provide a new socket for the ball of the femur bone to enter. Behind the implant and between the pelvis, doctors have inserted a graft containing bone stem cells.

Glasses-free 3-D projector

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:33 PM PDT

Researchers have steadily refined a design for a glasses-free, multiperspective, 3-D video screen, which they hope could provide a cheaper, more practical alternative to holographic video in the short term. Now they've designed a projector that exploits the same technology. The projector can also improve the resolution and contrast of conventional video, which could make it an attractive transitional technology as content producers gradually learn to harness the potential of multiperspective 3-D.

How Asian American 'tiger mothers' motivate their children

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:32 PM PDT

An article titled 'Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior,' published in The Wall Street Journal in 2011, has continued to provoke a cultural debate among parents after self-proclaimed 'tiger mother' Amy Chua asserted that Asian American parenting methods produce more successful children. Researchers delved deeper into Chua's 'tiger mother' approach, and their research sheds light on key fundamental differences in parenting methods between Asian Americans and European Americans.   

Non-invasive lithotripsy leads to more treatment for kidney stones

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:32 PM PDT

When it comes to treating kidney stones, less invasive may not always be better, according to new research. In a direct comparison of shock wave lithotripsy vs. ureteroscopy -- the two predominant methods of removing kidney stones -- researchers found that ureteroscopy resulted in fewer repeat treatments.

Gender differences stand out in measuring impact of Viagra as therapy for heart failure

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:32 PM PDT

Sildenafil, the erectile dysfunction drug sold as Viagra and now under consideration as a treatment for heart failure, affects males and females very differently, new animal studies by cardiovascular researchers strongly suggest. In female mice modeling human heart failure, the benefits of sildenafil ranged from robust to practically nonexistent, depending on the animals' levels of the hormone estrogen, says a researcher. In male mice, sildenafil generally appears to work well, but only because it targets a different biological process independent of estrogen, he says.

With imprecise chips to the artificial brain

Posted: 16 May 2014 05:29 PM PDT

Which circuits and chips are suitable for building artificial brains using the least possible amount of power? A surprising finding: Constructions that use not only digital but also analog compact and imprecise circuits are more suitable for building artificial nervous systems, rather than arrangements with only digital or precise but power-demanding analog electronic circuits.

Walking may have profound benefits for patients with kidney disease

Posted: 15 May 2014 02:33 PM PDT

Among patients with chronic kidney disease who were followed for an average of 1.3 years, those who walked for exercise were 33% less likely to die and 21% less likely to need dialysis or a kidney transplant. Physical inactivity is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The researchers found that the presence of other, or comorbid, conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes was similar between walking and non-walking patients.

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